Chapter2[1] - ANSWERS TO “B” EXERCISES Exercise 2.1 44....

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Unformatted text preview: ANSWERS TO “B” EXERCISES Exercise 2.1 44. 46. 48. 50. <The United States should not have invaded Iraq? <The United States shouid have invaded Iraq? <0. J. Simpson is guilty of murder? <She is guilty? <Unless the president changes course and urgently adopts the Democratic recommendations, we risk trading a dictator for chaos in Iraq? (Note the status of “unless” back in section 1.13.) Two statements: <11" we left Iraq prematurely, the enemy would tell us to leave Afghanistan and then withdraw from the Middle East? <If we left the Middle East, they'd order as and all those who don’t share their militant ideology to ieave what they call the occupied Muslim lands from Spain to the Philippines? <War is good for absolutely nothing? <0. .1. Simpson is innocent of murder? No statement at all; this is a question. <We would all be safer if every psychologically fit adult American with no criminal record were to carry at all times an easily concealable, easily obtainable semiautomatic handgun? Two statements, connected with “though”: <Elimination of the Zionist regime is the main solution to the current crisis? <At this stage a cease-fire should be immediately established? Three statements, connected with "though" and “yet” and “but”: <1 say to the righteous that he shall surely live? <1f he trusts in his righteousness and commits iniquity, none of his righteous deeds shall be remembered? <1n the iniquity that he has committed he shall die? <Keiko can speak Japanese very well? <People who refuse a lie detector test always have something to hide? <Osama bin Laden is still alive? <You should not vote for Baraclt Obama? <You should vote for Ron Paul? <Tifi‘any cannot (i.e., is not able to) run a mile in 4 minutes? <You know the answer to that history question? No statement at all; this is simply a question. Four statements: <The Bush administration has failed for more than three years to find Mr. bin Laden? <Mr. bin Laden is believed to be somewhere along the Pakistan~Afghanistan border? <Mr. bin Laden has little trouble keeping abreast of events? <Mr. bin Laden has little trouble get- ting his repeated musings distributed? <Until he [Floyd Landis] is found guilty or admits guilt, he will keep the yellowjemey? Five statements: <Bob is a friend of mine? <Bob is a Democrat? <Bob lives in Berkeley? <Bob voted for President Bush? <Bob supports the war in Iraq? Five statements: <1 arn lonely? <1 am upset? <1 am confused? <1 have my days when I’ve thrown a little pity party for myseif? <l‘rn doing really well? Four statements: <lt is a high level of sectarian violence? <People are being killed? <1t is unfor- tunate? <The government is doing basically the right things? 6 Cl-iAl’TER 2 52. Just one long statement: <lt is not unreasonable to believe that if the US. removed Saddam and helped Iraqis build not an overnight democracy but a more accountable, progressive and demo— cratizing regime, it would have a positive, transforming effect on fire entire Arab world—a region desperately in need of a progressive model that works.> Exercise 2.4 2. “)<She must be’ is against abortion>, (“<she’s a Roman Catholic? (2) \i/ (1) 4. “)<Keiko grew up in Japan.> @, (3)<she can probably speak (1) Japanese very \vell.> {2} 6. “)<It’s so hard to decide when there’s only one candidate>, (2) ~12 l3l<there’s no one to compare them to.> (1) I V J J l l P.— 8. “l<There are plenty of excellent brains at Sootete Generale> tconse- (l) \l» uentl (Zlél’fui‘d it is hard to believe the risk management systems and 9 q Y (J all the auditors did not indicate anything at any level.> 10. “'<Abortion is murder>, for l2l<it involves killing a human heing.> (2) £1] (1) l2. “l<PleaSe you should consider moving on> @) (3)<if you allow (2) xi; this situation to drag on another year or two or three, you’d have to be (1) crazy? 14. (“<If your time to you is worth savin‘ then you better start swimmin‘ or (2) \1/ you’ll sink like a stone> m<the times they are a-changin’.> (1) 16. “)<I am a smart person>, m<l always score very high on intel- (2) xi; ligence tests.> (.1) 18. ix) ls.) 30. ANSWERS T0 “13" EXERCISES m<We want things that are incompatible With one another>; (therefore), ( I) (“<we have to make a choice of what we really want, of the course of {2) action, that is, which most fully releases activities.> (Note that “really” here is not superfluous, as Dewey indicates to us by italicizing it, and then going on immediately to tell us what meaning it has.) We'll, “)<if you’re not here, then baby I don’t care), (2)<I‘m (2) xiv looking for someone to love? (1) “Elf there is a God, then God is completer good, completely knowing, (1) and completely powerful? , m<if there is a God, God would not (2) allow evil in the world.> l”<When Cupid shot his dart, he shot it at your heart>, m<if we (1) ever part, then I leave you.> (2) (“<He would not taite the crown? (l) \L- @ “as certain m<he was not ambitious? (g) m<As far back as we can follow the history of the lode—European languages (1) we find only complete words>, ul<their analysis into component ‘1, . . . . . (2) morphological elements is merely a seteotlfic dewce for purposes of arrange- ment and classification.> @ ("<“transit without visa" can be exploited by terrorists to enter (1) \l/ the United States>, ul<the program should not be reinstated unless and (2) until transit passage areas can be fully secured to prevent passengers from illegally exiting the airport.> 34. 36. 38. 40. CHAPTER 2 (“<We should Let ,u‘s eat and drink>, m<toniorrow we die.> (“<11t’is’kno‘wn that there are an infinite number of worlds,> simply m<there is an infinite amount of space for them to he in.> l”<Where there is much desire to learn, there of necessity will be much arguing, much writing, many opinions>; m<opinion in good men is but knowledge in the making.> President Bush, addressing head—on tlfe criti’cism that Iraq has turned into another Vietnam, argued Wednesday that W<withdrawing from Iraq would be dangerous> , unlike the eneiny in’ Vietnam, m<terrorists in Iraq had have the ability and desire to strike Americans at horne.> (The first part of the sentence just tells whose argument this is, but is not part of the argument itself; i.e., we have there introductory words. And “unlike the enemy in Vietnam,” while relevant to some larger point that Iraq and Vietnam are different, is not part of this argument, whose conclu— sion talks about lraq alone. Finally, the “had” in (2) is in the past tense because the entire sentence is put in the past tense, since it is about what Mr. Bush said in the past; presumably his actual argu- ment used “have.” See the answer to Exercise 5.5, #78, below, for a similar shift.) “’<You still don’t have the kinds of credit information in Turkey that you have in the States> l2)<you’re not going to be able to ratchet down the level of bad credit like you can here? Many people still bel-i’éve that “kb’ Black people are intellectually inferior to white people> m<they deserve the lowest economic and social standing in America.> (1} (2) (1) ANSWERS TO "13" EXERCESES (The phrase “Many people still believe that" just tells us whose argument this introductory words. This is not the argument of the person writing the letter.) Exercise 2.5 [\J “)<All elephants are reptiles>, yet (3)<Soerates is an elephant? Accord- ingly], ‘3)<Socrates is a reptile? 4. ,I’thiiik ("<it’s a racist statement? m<a lot of the guys who are + wearing chains are my age? and (“<3 lot of the guys who are wearing chains are black? (Note that (2) by itself would not support (1), so linked seems better. Of course, perhaps (2) is really just irrelevant to (I) anyway.) 6. HJ<You should buy a new car this year?, @ Ul<interest rates are Very low now?, and m<your old car probably won’t last much longer? 8. (“<If 1 had committed the crime, E’d be nervous now? But (2)<I‘m not nervous? lSo) (3)<I‘m innocent? 10. Ul<All philosophers are mortal? , (2)<Socrates is a philosopher>, m<he is mortal? 12. (“<1 really deserve a raise>, be’ss, since (3)<I’ve got three little chil- + m , . .I then? and <1 ve got a very sickly mile? 14, m<There are an infinite number of worlds? However, “knot every one of them is inhabited? , m<there must be’are a finite number of inhabited worlds? 10 is: i.e., they are 16. 18. [\J [\J CHAPTER 2 (“<Mr. Black was seen in Paris just five minutes before the murder in Chicago.> Besides, m<Mn Black and the victim were good friends.> , (“<Mr. Black is innocent of the murder.> ("<The victory was more impressive> m<the 1% mile Derby + was Regret’s first race of the year> and l3l<she had never competed beyond three-quarters of a mile before.> l')<l-le tells you the Union cannot exist unless the States are all free or all slave>; lll<he tells you that he is opposed to making them all slave>, @ m<he is for making them all free, in order that the Union may exist? (1) (3) (3) 2+3 (1) (Note: I. have done this using Douglas’s words. But we could, perhaps indeed should, extract Lin— coln’s argument from this account, and then analyze Lincoln’s argument How would We do that?) “)<Nothing less can be ultimately desirable than the admission of all + [people] to a share in the sovereign power of the state.> But “(all cannot, in a community exceeding a single small town, partici- pate personally in any but some very minor portions of the public busi~ ness,> it follows that m<the ideal type of a perfect government must be representative? + @ ("dammit behavior is symbol behavior> and m<the behavior of infra-human species is non—symbolic? l3l<we can learn nothing about human behavior from observations upon or experiments with the lower animals.> 11 (3) ANSWERS TO “B“ EXERCISES (“<They mu‘st he’are very well oftb, thqu’gh, for l2)<everything’s as T I nice as can be all over the house? and l3l<that watered 511k she had on cost a pretty penny? m<lf we pull out of Iraq, the oil revenue from Iraq will be used to sup- port global terrorism? And m<it will be bad if the oil revenue from Iraq is used to support global terrorism? @, m<we should not pull out of Iraq? Exercise 2.7. Lefi for you to do. Exercise 2.8 Ix.) “kthe cathode rays carry a charge of negative electricity?1 l3)<the cathode rays are deflected by an electrostatic force as if they were neg— 4.. atively electrified>, and l3l<the cathode rays are acted on by a mag- netic force in just the way in which this force would act on a negatively electrified body moving along the path of these rays>, (I can see no escape from the conclusion that) (“<they are charges of negative elec— tricity carried by particles of matter? "i‘ W ("<All mammals are mortal>, and m<all men are mammals? {It follows thatlm<all Greeks are mortal>, l")<all Greeks are men? here are four reasons why lll<you should stay in school? (1)<You’ll make your Parents proud by getting an education>, l33<you‘ll make more money with an education>, (“<you’ll learn all sorts of interesting things>, and (5)<you can meet lots of fun people? 2+3 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) :1 #4! v” z (1) 10. 14. Cl'lAlYI'ER 2 “i<hi’s age he is old>, Wire infu'rnities he is infirm>, m<he has endured the punishment of the many years ll)+(2)+(3)+(4)-t—(51 he has already spent on Death Row>, “Rh-is he had excellent (6) behavior during that time? and (5l<he has the very little natural life he” has remaining>, ‘°l<spariag Allen from execution would be an act of decency, compassion andjustic-e? (You might look further at section 3.B on the rewarding here; the tricky part is putting the various points into the form of statements.) “l<l‘ve really earned an increase in salary>, boss, since l2i<I’ve got 2 + 3 + 4 + ‘1’ three little children>, l3)<I’ve got a very sickly wife>, and “kl’ve got a (1) huge mortgage payment? “)<If we pull out of Iraq, the oil revenue from Iraq will be used to sup— port global terrorism? And m<it will be bad if the oil revenue from jll+12l 133414! Iraq is used to support global terrorism? m<lf we pull out of Iraq, all (5) of the soldiers who gave their lives in Iraq‘will have died for nothing? And ("kit will be bad if all of the soldiers who gave their lives in Iraq have died for nothing? , l5l<we should not pull out of Iraq? (Note the structure here. ('1) and (2) go together (as in 2.5, #28), and (3) and (4) go together. But then each of those pairs is a separate point, independent of the other. That the oil revenue from Iraq is used to support global terrorism is a completely different point from the deaths of the soldiers. Keep all this in mind when you turn to 4.7, #14.) (')<Osama bin Laden is alive>, l2l<he regularly makes videotapes>, l3l<he often issues statements denouncing the United States>, and i“khe is (2) (3) (4) :1 ~11 a reported by many news sources to be living somewhere along the border (1) between Pakistan and Afghanistan? 13 ANSWERSTO“B”EXERCBES Exercise 2.10. Left for you to do. Exercise 2.1] Is.) “)<The object of reasoning is to find out, from the consideration of what we already know, something else which we do not know.> [Conn sequentli}, (2)<reasoning is good if it be such as to give a true conclu- sion from true premises>, and m<reasoning is not good if it is not such as to give a true conclusion from true premises otherwise> (“<We have no abstract idea of existence, distinguishable and separable from the idea of particular objects? (2)<‘Tis impossible>, , L_____.~ jthat this idea of existence can be annex‘d to the idea of any object>,,o‘r and (3)<’tis impossible that this idea of existence can form the dif— ference betwixt a simple conception and belief> (1) (1) (2) (3) (Note that saying that it‘s impossible that either A or B is the same as saying that both A and B are impossibie.) i4 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2011 for the course PHIL 110 taught by Professor Kay during the Spring '07 term at S.F. State.

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Chapter2[1] - ANSWERS TO “B” EXERCISES Exercise 2.1 44....

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