Chapter4[1] - CHAPTER 4 Exercise 4.1 No other addition...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 4 Exercise 4.1 No other addition (besides A and B) is justified. The reason is that with these two additions both inferences are now valid. Exercise 4.5 Is.) 10. m<AEl Senators have political power.> And W<Barbara Boxer is a Senator? m<Barbara Boxer has political power> + m<Amold Schwarzenegger is rich>, t2)<he is a movie siar> and W<all movie stars are rich.> l|)‘~’-Tl1€1‘€ are thousands of regular cocaine users in the United States +— today.> And (A)<cecaine use is against the law.> (jiherefore), “kthou— sands of people in effect decide that it‘s better to break the law than not to? (Thus), m<thousands of people are developing disrespect for the law.> (“<Socrates mu’st have written wrote books>, m<Socrates was a philosopher> and W<all philosophers write books.> . 1 + m<Dtck Cheney rrtu'st bc’is blacl{>, (“’<he is a Republicau> and W<all Republicans are black? “)<Kennedy is a white male? And (AkKennedy was a U. S. Presrdent.> (“<N1xon is a white male? And (B)<Nixon was a +— U. S. President.> m<Clinton is a white male.> And iC]<Clin— ton was a U. S. President.> W<all U. S. Presidents have been white males.> 25 (EMA) xix (1) [EH-(A! a, (1) (1)—a—{A1+(2)+(B)+(3)+{C) ~1w (4) l4. H5. 18. ANSWERS TO “B” EXERCISES + (“<1 mu‘stb’e am a fool>, ukfools fail in love? and (“<1 fell in love? It has been (proved that) ("<Saddam Hussein did not have weapons of mass destruction? (1) '2 xiv (1) (As in the example on pp. 32—83, we have here a reference to evidence that is not implicit, but is simply missing.) (“<There were four milEion people in the Colonies and we had Jefferson and Paine and Franklin? Fanta’stic. And m<now we have 208 million and the two top guys are McGovern and Nixon? And W<Jefferson and Paine and Franklin were much superior to McGovern and Nixon? lB)<Darwin thought that the human species was getting bet— ter.> What can you draw fi'om this? @, l3i<Darwin was wrongfi> (One could divide each of (l) and (2) into two premises. By the way, is (B) true? One might consider also whether (A) is true, although that question is probably not so difficult as whether (13) is true.) (“<He hadn’t killed her? (because) m<the couple had been living in Alabama at the time of the girl‘s death? and m<they spent the entire + Christmas holiday together>, and W<JonBenet Ramsey was killed in Colorado>, and lm<Colorado is too far from Alabama to permit Karr to travel back and forth during the holiday? (Remember that we are analyzing the content of Lara Karr‘s thoughts.) Exercise 4.6 The basic structure is: 26 1+2+A+B (3) (2)+§3)+(A)+(B) (1) Ci-lAPTER 4 m<You should not Don’t look back>; m<something might be (2) xl/ gaining on you.> (1) But this leaves the connection between (2) and (1) implicit. We can make that connection explicit by doing the analysis as follows: m<You should not Don’t tool: back>; m<something might be 12! + 1A! 41 gaining on you>, and {Al<il' you look back you cannot run as fast? (I) By the way, besides the eminently wise advice contained here, there is also the interesting use of “something.” It is not just a “somebody” that might be gaining on you, but possibly a mysterious “something.” “)<The stories told by former Senator Bob Kerrey and his squad mate Gerhard Klann are completely different? m<Klann would have 3 4, '3 us believe it was a meticulous slaughter of unarmed women and chil- (T) dren,> but ‘3l<l{errey recalls that the killings were an accident that oc- curred during a confusing night of war.> NORAD officials ha‘ve maintained that they would haw intercepted and 5th doyifn United ,93. We are not sp’ sure. l'l<W,e’are sure that the 2 + 3 nation owes a debt to the Passengers of United 93> For l2)<t5i’heir (it) actions saved the lives of countless others? all]; m<their actions may have saved either the Capitol or the White House from destruction.> (The first two sentences are not part of the argument.) How c_ai1“l<l-Ie [Allah] does not have a son> since (2} Wifen m<He hath no consorth‘?‘ (1) 27 10. 14. 16. 18. ANSWERS TO “B” EXERCISES (“<Please You should refrain from touching the artwork>c for m<the oils and salts on your skin will cause damage? “)<We cE'an‘t hone>; (1)<we’ve clone 5 ant eve dime.> p P W Iffit'ukThe Wilson affair we're is not as trivial as Mr. Brooks suggests>, theh why would m<the C.l.A. have called for an immediate investigation into the when»? “)<There need be nothing wrong with the intelligence of someone who accepts a sophistical a priori argument? ukmhgywise if there were something wrong with the intelligence of someone who ac— cepts a sophistical a prim-i argument, most philosophers would suffer from defective intelligence.>, W<most philosophers accept . . V - + I soplnstlcal a prior: arguments>1 but <most plnlosophers do not suffer from defective intelligence> “(the candidates have been vowing to imitate President Rea— gan>, (2)<they should be calling whe‘re are the calls to leave Iraq,(‘as" m<Ronald Reagan doubtless would have called for us to leave Iraq> dohej’xr?’ ("<There is no one kind of thing that we ‘perceive’ but many difereut kinds>, the numtfer being reducible/fiat a-l‘l,b’y scientific investigation and notify philosophy: m<peus are in many ways though not in all ways unlike rainbows>, which and (3)<rainbows are in many ways .1— though not in all ways unlike after-images>, \Vh'i/Ch/fh turn and 28 M 63; (1) [2}+(3)+(4)+(5) ~£z (1) q, (5) Cl-lAl‘TER 4 (“<al'ter-images are in many ways but not in ail ways unlike pictures on the cinenia-sereen>———and,s‘o ,o’n, witlfout assignable lin’fit m<there are many other examples of the same sort.> “kwe are no! to look for an answer to the question, what kind of thing we perceive.> 22. Talkin‘ on the phone/ifs not my speed. (“<You should not Don’t send (2) \1/ menu :1 letter> @ m<l can‘t read.> (1) 24. Hgd “kit [the Qur‘an] been is not from other than Allah>, (2) xix m<they wofild stp’éiy Have not found therein Much discrepancy.> (1) Exercise 4.7 2. (“<Tlte best cars are Toyotas>, and m<you should buy the best ear.> 1 + 2 xi; W<you should buy a Toyota.> (A) 4. “)<Jones is dishonest and a liar? m<No one like that should be Presi— - 1 +— 2 \i/ dent.> , W<Jones should not be President.> (A) 6. You ask me whether tlie’rexisda’Go’d? Let ,nie ask you whether (“<21 God (1) ~11 would not permit the evil and injustice that we see all around us>,2"No (A) way. Draw your oWn conelfision. , (Akthere is no God; 8. (“<Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry iook>; m<he thinks too rnuch>:. 11': + [2} + (3) six i3)<such men are dangerous.> , W<Cassiu5 is dangerous? (A) 29 10. 14. ANSWERS TO “B” EXERCISES “kit Mr. Bush really cared about our troops, their families and the welfare of Iraqis, he would not persist in this cynical folly? But W<he is persist- [ltd-[Al xi! ing in this cynical folly (i.e., the Iraq War)? , (3)410 does (3) not care about our troops, their families and the Welfare of Iraqis? (“<If we pull out of Iraq, the oil revenue from Iraq will be used to support global terrorism? And W<it will be bad if the oil revenue from Iraq is used to support global terrorism? (3)<It' we pull out (UNA: {21+(B! ofIraq, all of the soldiers who gave their lives in Iraq will have died N (C) l4 +- for nothing? And (Bkit will be bad if all of the soldiers who gave their lives in Iraq have died for nothing? [hereforeL m<we should not pull out of Iraq? (“<If we pull out of Iraq, seeing that we are weak as they have been told; they will be embold- +- ened to spread terrorism to other countries and more against us? And W<it will be bad if seeing that we are weak as they have been told, they are emboldened to spread terrorism to other countries and more against uS? (3’<Il' we pull out of Iraq, the oil revenue from Iraq will be used to support global terrorism? And (Skit will be bad if the oil revenue from Iraq is used to support global terrorism? m<lf we pull out of Iraq, America will no longer be trusted by coun- tries that we ask to help in the war against terrorism? Add (Ckit will be bad if America is no longer trusted by countries that we ask to help in the war against terrorism? (“<If we pull out of Iraq, all of the soldiers who gave their lives in Iraq will have died for nothing? Add (Dkit will be bad if all of the soldiers who gave their lives in Iraq have died for nothing? m<If we pull out of Iraq, military morale will be destroyed? And (E)<it will be bad if military morale is destroyed? (“RH we pull out of Iraq, the people who are left behind will be massacred on a scale that will make the killing fields of Cambodia seem trivial? And (Fl<it will be bad if the 30 16. 18. CHAPTER 4 people who are left behind are massacred on a scale that makes the killing fields of Cam- bodia seem trivial.> (7)<If we pull out of Iraq, the mullahs will use our retreat to justify their cause and increase attacks on us.> And (Skit will be bad if the mullahs use our retreat to jus- tify their cause and increase attacks on us.> , (“kwe should not pull out of Iraq; tll+iAl i2l+lBi t3l+lCl 141+lD! 1534-113! i6i+lFl 171+“?! \_,_\ is s t I! L; 11' (H) (Note that all the separate points, indicated by “>“ in the original letter, are descriptions of what will happen if we pull out offing. So that condition needs to be expressed throughout. Also, the author is assuming that all of these various descriptions are undesirable; so we need to add implicit premises expressing those assumptions. And, of course, the conclusion is left implicit as Well.) (“<Our ideas teach no farther than our experience>: {3)<We have no 1 + 2 \i/ experience of divine attributes and operations>:,l’need not conclude my (A) sylio’gism: Y,'u can draw the inference yogréelf. hus , W<we have no ideas of divine attributes and operations.> “)<A few weeks after the 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, repre- sentatives of Hezbollah were giving out thousands of dollars in cash to -l- 1 + 2 Lebanese who had lost their homes in the war.> Yet m<one year after ‘1’ hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, the U. S. government had done noth» ing for many of the people who lost their homes in the flooding? It’s obvious what conclusion (we should conclude that) draw about the e‘ffioiéncy,’f W<Hezbollah is more efficient than and the U. S. govern- roent.> 31 IQ h.) ANSWERS TO “B” EXERCISES In the first place, (“<1 never borrowed any kettle from 13.? secondly, (11+ (2) + (3) 4» m<the kettle had a hole in it when I received it from B.,> thirdly, m<the (A) kettle was in perfect condition when l returned it.> @ W<I did not return the kettle to B. with a large hole in it.> The premises are linked because they are not independent of each other. Note that if (1) is true, (2) can‘t be true; and if (2) is true, then (3) can‘t be true; and so on. That kind of relationship will not occur with convergent premises. (“<Women have the right to do what they want with their own bodies? And m<abortion involves a woman’s own body.> So , you can figure \1, . (A) on! what (It follows that) (Akwomen having have a right to an abor- tion>, can’t you? (As 1 have this above, we have redundant conclusion indicators.) Exercise 4.9. The difference here is (presumably) in the background information that we bring to out under— standing of what‘s being said. In the case of “if it is now raining in Chicago, then the streets are wet in Chi- cago," we (presumably) have no information about rain or wet streets in Chicago. So all we have is this gen- erai principle about the relation between rain and wet streets. (If we were looking at the rain or wet streets in Chicago, then we’d haVe more.) In the case of “if this isn’t suicide, I’m a monkey‘s uncle," we (presum- ably) do have the additional information that the person speaking is indeed not a monkey’s uncle. And (again, presumably) the person speaking assumes that we recognize that he or she is not a monkey’s uncle, and expects that we will use that information. ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2011 for the course PHIL 110 taught by Professor Kay during the Spring '07 term at S.F. State.

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Chapter4[1] - CHAPTER 4 Exercise 4.1 No other addition...

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