Criteria_of_Ad_-_Weird_Things[1]

Criteria_of_Ad_-_Weird_Things[1] - ft=.*-, weightless as...

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Unformatted text preview: ft=.*-, weightless as u,ell. Even th.Lrgh phlogiston was supposed to flow intcr substances that n'ere hcated, carefr,rl experiments had found that increases in temper.rtlrrc did n.t produce increases in weight phlo- giston u'as also th.'ght tr llon, orrt of sr,rbstances that were burned. what Lrltirnately led t'thc the.ry's dernise, hou.ever, was the cliscov- ery that somc substances actually gain u,eight when burned. French chernist Ant.ine [-a'.rsier foLrnd that when tin was burned, for ex- arnple, the res'lting rretallic 'xide wcighed rnore than the orisinal tin lf phlogistrn n'ere lost durrng Lrurning, he argLrecl, thi. *"ight gain v'ouldn't be possible I)efenders of the phlogist.n theory tried to account f'r this phe- nomenon b1, hypothesizing that the phlogiston in tin possessed neg_ ative rveight, so that when it l'as lost, the tin gained rt,eight But thls hypothesis was soon scen for what it r-eally rr,,a5-a desperate attempt to save the theory 1'r.rn the facts. Unlike Leverrier'.s postulation of the existence ol the planet that u.as narned Neptune, there was no way to independently conhrrn .r confute the negative n,eight hypothesis. It u'as ad hoc in the trLrest se nse of the term. The rnoral of this story is that for a hypothesis to increase our knou,lcdgc. there rnr.rst be s.rne way to test it, for if there isn,t, we have no u'a1, of tclling u,hether or not the hypothesis is true. CRITERIA OF ADEQUACY T b e x p l a r n s , r n e t h i n g i s t . , o f f c r a h y p o t h e s i s t h a t h c r p s u s u n d e r - s t a n d i t . F o r e x a m p l e , \ \ , c c a n e x p l a i n u , h y a p e n n y l e f t o u t s i d e t u r n s g ' c c n b y . f f c r i n g t h e h y p o t h c s i s r h a t t h e p e n n y i s r n a d e . u t o f c r o - p e r a n d t h a t r v h e n c o p p e r o x i d i z c s , i t t r - r r n s g r e e n . B L r t t o r a n y s e t o f f a c t s , i t ' s p . s s i b l e t . c i e v i s e a n y n u r r b e r . f h y p o t h e s e s t , a c c . u n t f o r t h e m . S L r p p o s c t h a t s o l r e ( ) n e n , a n t e c l t . k n o u , r . l , h a t m a k e s f l u o r e s - c e n t l i g h t s r v . r k o n e h y p . t h e s i s i s t h a t i n s i d e e a c h t ' b e i s a l i t t l e g r e r n J i n r , r , h o c r c a t e s l i g h t ( s p a r k s ) b i , s l r ; L ' n * h i s p i c k a x a g a i n s t t h e s i d e o l t h e t u b c I n a d d i t i . n t . t h e , n e g r e r n l i n h y p . t h e s i s , t h e r e i s t h e t u ' o g r e r n l i n h y p o t h e s i s , t h e t h r e e g r e r n l i n h y p o t h e s i s , a n d s o o n B e c a u s e t h c . e i s a l r n ' a y s r n . r c t h a n ' n e h y p . t h e s l s t o a c c ( ) L r n t t o r a n y s e t o l f a c t s a n d b e c a u s e n o s e t o f f a c t s c a n c o n c l u s i v e l y c o n f i r r r o r c o n f u t e a n y h y p o t h e s i s , u , c r n u s t a p p e a l t o s o r n e t h i n g b e s i d e s t h e t a c t s i n . r d e r t . d e c i d c w h i c h h y p . t h c s i s i s t h e r n o s t r e a s o n a b l et ....
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2011 for the course PHIL 110 taught by Professor Kay during the Spring '07 term at S.F. State.

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Criteria_of_Ad_-_Weird_Things[1] - ft=.*-, weightless as...

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