stdy_guide_4_Sp09[1]

stdy_guide_4_Sp09[1] - S tu d y G u id e fo r E x a m 4 S p...

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Unformatted text preview: S tu d y G u id e fo r E x a m 4 S p r in g 2 0 0 9 , B io lo g y 1 0 0 R e a d c h a p te r s 1 9 (s e c tio n s o n m e io s is a n d c h r o m o s o m a l d e fe c ts ), 2 0 , 1 0 , a n d , fo r b a c k g r o u n d , th e h o m e o s ta s is s e c tio n in c h a p te r 4 . C o n s tr u c t a v is u a l p ic tu r e o r a n a r r a tiv e o f th e id e a s b e h in d th e te r m s . A ls o , y o u m ig h t fin d th e s u p p le m e n ta l r e a d in g s o n E R E S fo r G e n e tic s a n d E n d o c r in e u s e fu l – fe e l fr e e to a c c e s s a n d r e a d th e m . B e a b le to a n s w e r th e c o n c e p ts a n d q u e s tio n s u s in g th e b e lo w te r m s – a s a lw a y s , m a k e s u r e y o u r a n s w e r s a r e a s c o m p le te a n d a s p r e c is e a s p o s s ib le M ito s is D ip lo id s o m a tic c e lls (4 6 C χ ) M e io s is H a p lo id g a m e te s (2 3 C χ ) S p e r m c e lls E g g c e lls G onads T e s te s O v a r ie s H o m o lo g o u s p a ir s (h o m o lo g u e s ) S a m e le n g th Sam e genes S a m e o rd e r A u to s o m e s – (C χ 1 -2 2 ) S e x c h ro m o s o m e s (X Y ) M e io s is I P ro p h a s e I S y n a p s is - C r o s s in g o v e r A naphase I - S e p a r a tio n o f h o m o lo g u e s M e io s is II A n a p h a s e II - S e p a r a tio n o f c h r o m a tid s S p e r m fo r m a tio n P u b e rty # c e lls p r o d u c e d /m e io s is E g g fo r m a tio n U n iq u e tim in g # c e lls p r o d u c e d /m e io s is P o la r b o d ie s C h r o m o s o m e n o n d is ju n c tio n A u to s o m a l a n e u p lo id s – m o n o s o m ie s , tr is o m ie s S e x c h r o m o s o m e a n e u p lo id s – m o n o s o m ie s , tr is o m ie s X -in a c tiv a tio n B a rr b o d y D o s a g e c o m p e n s a tio n S R Y r e g io n TDF P h e n o ty p e G e n o ty p e E n v ir o n m e n t G enes P o ly g e n ic M o n o g e n ic H om ozygous H e te ro z y g o u s R e c e s s iv e D o m in a n t C o d o m in a n t A B O b lo o d g r o u p s – g e n o ty p e s a n d p h e n o ty p e s R h b lo o d g r o u p – g e n o ty p e s a n d p h e n o ty p e s A u to s o m a l r e c e s s iv e tr a its C y s tic fib r o s is U n a ffe c te d c a r r ie r s A u to s o m a l d o m in a n t tr a its A c h o n d r o p la s tic d w a r fis m S e x u a l s e le c tio n S ic k le c e ll a n e m ia M a la r ia S e le c tio n a g a in s t g e n o ty p e s S e le c tio n fo r g e n o ty p e s H e te ro z y g o te a d v a n ta g e H o w m a n y c h r o m o s o m e s a r e in a h u m a n c e ll? H o w m a n y a u to s o m e s a r e in a h u m a n c e ll? H o w m a n y s e x c h r o m o s o m e s a r e in a h u m a n c e ll? W h a t d e fin e s a h o m o lo g o u s p a ir o f c h r o m o s o m e s ? H o w m a n y h o m o lo g o u s p a ir s a r e in a h u m a n c e ll? H o w m a n y c h r o m o s o m e s a r e in a c e ll a fte r m e io s is I? A fte r m e io s is II? W h a t a r e a ll th e w a y s th a t m e io s is d iffe r s fr o m m ito s is ? In w h a t w a y s a r e th e y th e s a m e ? W h e r e d o e s m e io s is o c c u r in th e b o d y ? W h e r e d o e s m ito s is o c c u r ? W h a t c e lls a r e p r o d u c e d fr o m m e io s is ? W h a t c e lls a r e p r o d u c e d fr o m m ito s is ? W h a t is th e r e s u lt o f m e io s is I? W h a t is th e r e s u lt o f m e io s is II? W h e n d o e s c r o s s in g o v e r o c c u r ? H o w d o e s p r o p h a s e I o f m e io s is I d iffe r w ith r e g a r d to c h r o m o s o m e a r r a n g e m e n t a s c o m p a r e d to m ito tic p r o p h a s e ? W h a t is c r o s s in g o v e r a n d w h a t is its e ffe c t? W h e n d o e s s p e r m c e ll p r o d u c tio n la r g e ly b e g in ? W h e n d o e s th e fo r m a tio n o f a n e g g c e ll b e g in ? K n o w th e s te p s a n d tim e lin e in v o lv e d in th e fo r m a tio n o f a n e g g c e ll. W h a t tr ig g e r s th e c o m p le tio n o f m e io s is I in e g g c e lls ? W h a t tr ig g e r s m e io s is II in e g g c e lls ? W h a t a r e p o la r b o d ie s a n d w h y a r e th e y p r o d u c e d ? U n d e r s ta n d a b o u t c h r o m o s o m e a b n o r m a litie s a s a r e s u lt o f n o n - d is ju n c tio n . W h y m ig h t a n e u p lo id s ( z y g o te s w ith a n in c o r r e c t n u m b e r o f c h r o m o s o m e s ) r e s u lt fr o m fe r tiliz a tio n ? A t w h a t s p e c ific s ta g e ( s ) o f g a m e te fo r m a tio n c o u ld n o n d is ju n c tio n o c c u r , m e io s is I o r m e io s is II o r b o th ? A u to s o m a l m o n o s o m y a n e u p lo id s a r e n o n - v ia b le . V ia b le a u to s o m a l a n e u p lo id s a r e tr is o m ie s ( e .g . D o w n ’s s y n d r o m e o r tr is o m y 2 1 ) . W h a t d o e s th is s u g g e s t a b o u t g e n e b a la n c e a m o n g a ll th e g e n e s o n th e c h r o m o s o m e s ? A d v a n c e d m a te r n a l a g e in c r e a s e s th e c h a n c e s o f a D o w n ’s s y n d r o m e c h ild b u t n o t a n in c r e a s e d p a te r n a l a g e . W h a t is th e b io lo g ic a l e x p la n a tio n fo r th a t tr e n d ? S e x c h r o m o s o m a l a n e u p lo id s a r e m o r e c o m m o n th a n a u to s o m a l a n e u p lo id s - w h y ? ( h in t: w h a t h a p p e n s to th e X c h r o m o s o m e ) M ig h t th e c h a n c e s o f s e x c h r o m o s o m e a n e u p lo id s a ls o in c r e a s e w ith m a te r n a l age? K n o w th e e x a m p le s d is c u s s e d in c la s s ( X O fe m a le s , X X Y m a le s , X X X fe m a le s , X Y Y m a le s ) . K n o w w h a t a B a r r b o d y is a n d h o w th a t is a g e n e tic c o m p e n s a tio n ( d o s a g e c o m p e n s a tio n ) m e c h a n is m to b a la n c e th e g e n e s b e tw e e n m a le s a n d fe m a le s . A r e X X m a le s a n d X Y fe m a le s a r e s u lt o f n o n d is ju n c tio n ? U n d e r s ta n d th e in itia l b a s is o f m a le s e x is d e te r m in e d b y th e r e g io n o n th e Y c h r o m o s o m e c a lle d S R Y , w h ic h c o n ta in s g e n e fo r th e T D F , te s tis d e te r m in in g fa c to r ( a fa c to r is a p r o te in , a n d a p r o te in is a g e n e p r o d u c t) . K n o w w h a t a g e n e is a n d h o w it r e la te s to D N A . U n d e r s ta n d th e in flu e n c e s g e n e s h a v e r e s u ltin g in p h e n o ty p e ; th a t th e e n v ir o n m e n t c a n p la y a m a jo r r o le in d e te r m in in g p h e n o ty p e ; th a t th e in te r a c tio n b e tw e e n g e n e s a n d e n v ir o n m e n t p la y s a m a jo r r o le in d e te r m in in g p h e n o ty p e s . U n d e r s ta n d th a t m a n y p h e n o ty p e s in h u m a n s a r e p o ly g e n ic . U n d e r s ta n d th a t m o n o g e n ic m o d e ls e x is t a n d a r e e a s ie r to a n a ly z e . U n d e r s ta n d th a t th e m o n o g e n ic m o d e l s till e x p la in s h o w g e n e s a ffe c t p h e n o ty p e . AB U n d e r s ta n d th e A B O b lo o d g r o u p g e n o ty p e s ( I , I , i) a n d p h e n o ty p e s ( ty p e A , ty p e B , ty p e A B , ty p e O ) . K n o w th e g e n e tic s o f th e R h b lo o d g r o u p ( R h + a n d R h - ) , w h ic h is a s e c o n d , in d e p e n d e n t tr a it. K n o w h o w to c a lc u la te g a m e te a n d o ffs p r in g r a tio s w h e n m o r e th a n o n e tr a it is in v o lv e d ( e .g . s e x a n d b lo o d ty p e , A B O a n d R h b lo o d g r o u p s ) . K n o w h o w a n d w h e n to a p p ly th e A N D r u le w h e n c a lc u la tin g g e n e tic p r o b a b lilitie s . U n d e r s ta n d th a t d o m in a n t d o e s n o t m e a n c o m m o n . U n d e r s ta n d th a t n o r m a l r e fe r s to com m on. U n d e r s ta n d w h y g e n e s r e m a in in th e h u m a n p o p u la tio n a s a r e s u lt o f s e le c tiv e p r e s s u r e a n d th a t g e n e s a r e n o t s e le c te d fo r b u t tr a its a r e . U n d e r s ta n d th e e x a m p le s o f c y s tic fib r o s is ( c f) , H u n tin g to n ’s d is e a s e S ( H d ) , a c h o n d r o p la s tic d w a r fis m ( A c h ) , a n d s ic k le c e ll a n e m ia ( H b ) . U n d e r s ta n d h o w s e e m in g ly n o n s e le c te d g e n e s p e r s is t in a p o p u la tio n d u e to 1 ) h e te r o z y g o te s th a t a r e c a r r ie r s a n d n o t s e le c te d a g a in s t ( e x : C f/c f in d iv id u a ls a r e u n a ffe c te d c a r r ie r s ) , 2 ) la te o n s e t o f d is e a s e ( e x : H d /h d in d iv id u a ls a r e a ffe c te d ty p ic a lly a fte r p a s s in g th e g e n e o n ) , 3 ) s e x u a l s e le c tio n fo r th e tr a it ( e x : A c h /a c h w h e r e in d iv id u a ls a r e a ffe c te d a t b ir th a n d m a y b e s e le c te d a g a in s t in th e g e n e r a l p o p u la tio n , b u t m a y b e s e le c te d fo r in a s e le c t c o m m u n ity ) , a n d 4 ) s e le c tio n a g a in s t o r fo r th e tr a it, d e p e n d in g o n th e S A S A A A e n v ir o n m e n t a n d e ffe c t o f th e g e n o ty p e ( e x : H b /H b in a m a la r ia l z o n e v s H b /H b o r H b /H b in n o n m a la r ia l z o n e ) . U n d e r s ta n d th e r o le o f th e e n v ir o n m e n t in s e le c tio n . W h a t h a p p e n s to th e s e le c tio n p r e s s u r e if th e e n v ir o n m e n t c h a n g e s ? E n d o c r in e s y s te m G la n d H o rm o n e B lo o d s tr e a m T a r g e t tis s u e /c e lls H o rm o n e re c e p to r R esponse P itu ita r y g la n d ADH ta r g e t: k id n e y s ta r g e t:b r a in • m a in ta in s w a te r b a la n c e • n e g a tiv e fe e d b a c k D ia b e te s In s ip id u s O x y to c in ta rg e t:u te ru s • in c r e a s e c o n tr a c tio n ta r g e t: m a m m a r y tis s u e • s tim u la te m ilk r e le a s e • p o s itiv e fe e d b a c k B lo o d g lu c o s e b a la n c e P a n c re a s In s u lin r e s u lt: c e lls ta k e u p g lu c o s e c o n v e r t g lu c o s e g ly c o g e n (liv e r s to r e s excess) G lu c a g o n r e s u lt: c o n v e r t g ly c o g e n g lu c o s e liv e r c e lls r e le a s e g lu c o s e s to re s D ia b e te s m e llitu s T y p e I In s u lin d e p e n d e n t • lo s s o f p a n c r e a tic c e lls s y n th e s iz in g in s u lin c a u s e : o fte n im m u n e /v ir u s /g e n e tic D ia b e te s m e llitu s T y p e II in s u lin in d e p e n d e n t • lo s s o f r e c e p to r s e n s itiv ity c a u s e : o fte n d ie t/g e n e tic U n d e r s ta n d w h a t a h o r m o n e is , w h a t a r e c e p to r is . K n o w th e d iffe r e n c e b e tw e e n a g la n d a n d ta r g e t c e lls . W h ic h s y n th e s iz e s th e h o r m o n e b u t d o e s n ’t r e s p o n d to th e h o r m o n e , a n d w h ic h r e s p o n d s to th e h o r m o n e b u t d o e s n ’t s y n th e s iz e th e h o r m o n e ? W ith r e g a r d to s p e c ific e n d o c r in e d is o r d e r s , k n o w w h a t a r e p o s s ib le tr e a tm e n ts to c o r r e c t th e c o n d itio n . K n o w th e r o le o f A D H a n d w a te r b a la n c e in th e b o d y – w h e r e is it m a d e ? W h a t is th e s ig n a l? W h e r e is its ta r g e t( s ) ? W h a t d o e s it d o a t its ta r g e t( s ) ? U n d e r s ta n d h o w th e c o n c e p t o f n e g a tiv e fe e d b a c k a p p lie s . B e a b le to d e te r m in e w h a t h a p p e n s in th e e v e n t o f to o m u c h A D H r e le a s e o r to o little A D H r e le a s e . B e a b le to e x p la in th e h o r m o n a l b a s is o f d ia b e te s in s ip id u s . K n o w th e fu n c tio n o f o x y to c in in d e liv e r y o f a c h ild a n d in b r e a s tfe e d in g . U n d e r s ta n d w h a t th e s ig n a l is a n d h o w th a t tr ig g e r s o x y to c in r e le a s e , a n d th e e ffe c ts o f o x y to c in . U n d e r s ta n d th e h o w th e c o n c e p t o f p o s itiv e fe e d b a c k a p p lie s . K n o w th e r o le o f in s u lin a n d s u g a r b a la n c e in th e b o d y . K n o w w h e r e is it m a d e , w h a t th e s ig n a l is , a n d w h a t is th e ta r g e t( s ) ? W h a t d o e s it d o a t its ta r g e t( s ) ? K n o w th e s a m e w ith g lu c a g o n . U n d e r s ta n d w h a t d ia b e te s m e llitu s is a n d h o w T y p e I a n d II d iffe r . W h a t a r e th e d e fe c ts ? W h a t a r e th e u s u a l c a u s e s ? H o w a re th e y tre a te d ? ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2011 for the course BIOL 100 taught by Professor Dowdy during the Spring '08 term at S.F. State.

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