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chapter 6 review

chapter 6 review - 03:36 ,,thestagesofsleep,and...

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03:36 YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO…  • Define consciousness and discuss the different levels of consciousness.  • Explain the factors that control sleep, theories on the purpose of sleep, the stages of sleep, and  disorders of sleep.  • Introduce the concept of cognition, as it relates to mental images, concepts and problem  solving.  • Explain the basis of language and the relationship between language and thought processes.    RAPID REVIEW  Consciousness  is defined as a person’s awareness of the world around him or her.   Waking  consciousness  is defined as the state of awareness where our thoughts and feelings are clear  and organized.   Altered states of consciousness  describe a shift in the quality or pattern of a  person’s  awareness.  Examples of altered states of consciousness include using drugs, daydreaming,  being hypnotized, or simply sleeping.  The sleep-wake cycle is a  circadian rhythm , meaning one cycle takes about a day to complete.  Based on brain wave activity recorded with the use of an EEG, sleep has been divided into two  different types,  rapid eye movement (REM) sleep  and  non-REM sleep .  Non-REM sleep is a  deep, restful sleep and consists of four stages.  Stage 1 sleep is also called light sleep and  occurs when brain activity begins to shift from  alpha  to  theta wave  activity.  Many people  experience a hypnic jerk in this stage when their body jerks suddenly and wakes them up.  As  body temperature continues to drop and heart rate slows, sleep spindles begin to appear on the  EEG recording, signaling Stage 2 of non-REM sleep.  Stage 3  occurs when the slow, large  delta waves  first appear; and when delta waves account for more  than 5percent of the total brain activity, the person is said to be in Stage 4, the deepest stage of  sleep.         After a person cycles through Stages 1-4 and back, instead of entering Stage 1, people  experience REM sleep.  During this type of sleep, the brain is active and displays beta wave  activity, the eye exhibits rapid movements, and the skeletal muscles of the body are temporarily  paralyzed. This  paralysis is referred to as  REM paralysis .  When a person is wakened from this type of sleep  they often report being in a dream state.  Most likely, around 90 percent of dreams take place in  REM sleep,  although dreams also do occur in non-REM sleep. Contrary to popular belief, people do not go  crazy when deprived of REM sleep; however, they do spend longer amounts of time in REM sleep  when allowed to sleep normally again.  This phenomenon is known as 
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