Chapter 2- The Founding and the Constitution

Chapter 2- The Founding and the Constitution - The Founding...

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The Founding and the Constitution The First Founding and Interesting Contacts -Five sectors of society had interests that were important in colonial politics: 1. The New England merchants 2. The southern planters 3. The “royalists” – holders of royal lands, offices, and patents (licenses to engage a profession or business activity 4. Shopkeepers, artisans, and laborers 5. Small farmers *Groups were in conflict over issues of taxation, trade, and commerce -Southern planters, the New England merchants, and the royal office and patent holders were able to maintain a political alliance that held in check the more radical forces representing shopkeepers, laborers, and small farmers -After 1760British tax and trade policies split the colonial elite, permitting radical forces to expand their political influence, and set into motion a chain of events that culminated in the American Revolution British Tax and Colonial Interests -Mid eighteenth century government relied on tariffs, duties, and other taxes on commerce -The Stamp Act -The Sugar Act of 1764 Taxed sugar, molasses, and other commodities Affected groups with commercial interests and activities were most extensive – the New England Merchants and the southern planters “no taxation without representation” Political Strife and the Radicalizing of the Colonists -The British government granted the politically powerful East India Company a monopoly on the export of tea from Britain, eliminating lucrative form of trade for colonial merchants and the India Company sought to sell the tea directly in the colonies -The Boston Tea Party of 1773-Samuel Adams Dump East India Company’s tea into Boston Harbor -Result from the boycott = The Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence -In 1776 the Second Continental Congress appointed a committee consisting of Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, John Adams of Massachusetts, and Robert Livingston of New York to draft a statement of American independence from British rule -The Declaration of Independence – written by Jefferson and adopted by the Second Continental Congress Philosophic and political terms – “unalienable rights” (including life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness) could not be abridged by governments Was an attempt to identify and articulate a history and set of principles that might help to forge national unity
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Chapter 2- The Founding and the Constitution - The Founding...

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