pilow - Thomas Kuhn What is a paradigm package of claims...

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Thomas Kuhn What is a paradigm – package of claims about the world, methods for gathering and analyzing data, and habits of scientific thought and action Broad sense – package of ideas and methods, which when combined, make up both a view of the world and a way of doing science. Narrow sense – achievement is a source of inspiration to others; it suggests a way to investigate the world. Stages that a scientific paradigm goes through Pre Science – no dominant paradigm Normal Science – majority of workers are working within a certain paradigm, dominant paradigm. Work is organized around the paradigm and researchers are not really looking to challenge the paradigm. Debate about fundamentals is closed off. Make paradigm more precise. Crisis Growing mass of anomalies arise. ( anomaly, puzzle that has resisted solution) Researchers begin to examine the fundamentals of the existing paradigm and start challenging them. Scientific revolution One dominant paradigm is replaced with another Another paradigm appears as a new possibility for scientific attention Relativism – The truth depends upon your point of view or your beliefs. Kuhn can look like a relativist because of his discussion of incommersurable – when you speak about things like phlogiston versus oxygen, it makes one believe that you base the truth of phlogiston or oxygen upon the what you believe. They live in different worlds, a phlogiston theory lives in a world where they believe in phlogiston, and vice versa. What is it for two paradigms to be incommensurable? They are not comparable by any neutral common standard. A paradigm includes it own standards of evalutation. One person can prove his paradigm is better but this will never convince another person who is working under a different paradigm and thus different standards. Why does Kuhn think that scientists working in different paradigms have a hard time communicating with each other?
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They will use key terms in different ways and in sense will be speaking slightly different languages. o Ex. Newton mass = constant not matter motion o Einstein mass = changes with velocity. o HOLISTIC – it is not possible to know how theyr using the word without knowing the entire theory. People in different paradigms wil use different standards of evidence and argument, they will not agree on what a good theory is supposed to do. 1. type of argumentation that is required, whether it ought to appeal to experiment or reason 2. the types of htings that need to be explained 3. the types of explanations that count 4. the sorts of claims that count as simple What is a scientific revolution according to Kuhn? Crisis period, followed by a new candidate paradigm precipitating a
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pilow - Thomas Kuhn What is a paradigm package of claims...

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