MIS - Glossary.doc - MIS Glossary A 802.11b(Wi-Fi Standard...

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MIS Glossary A 802.11b (Wi-Fi): Standard for high-speed wireless LANs that can transmit up to 11 Mbps within a 100-meter area, providing a low-cost flexible technology for connecting work groups and providing mobile Internet access. acceptance testing: Provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. accountability: The mechanisms for assessing responsibility for decisions made and actions taken. accounting rate of return on investment (ROI): Calculation of the rate of return on an investment by adjusting cash inflows produced by the investment for depreciation. Approximates the accounting income earned by the investment. accumulated balance digital payment systems: Systems enabling users to make micropayments and purchases on the Web, accumulating a debit balance on their credit card or telephone bills. activity-based costing: Model for identifying all the company activities that cause costs to occur while producing a specific product or service so that managers can see which products or services are profitable or losing money and make changes to maximize firm profitability. administrative controls: Formalized standards, rules, procedures, and disciplines to ensure that the organization’s controls are properly executed and enforced. agency theory: Economic theory that views the firm as a nexus of contracts among self-interested individuals who must be supervised and managed. AI shell: The programming environment of an expert system. antivirus software: Software designed to detect, and often eliminate, computer viruses from an information system. application controls: Specific controls unique to each computerized application. application server: Software that handles all application operations between browser-based computers and a company’s back-end business applications or databases. application service provider (ASP): Company providing software that can be rented by other companies over the Web or a private network. application software: Programs written for a specific application to perform functions specified by end users. application software package: A set of prewritten, precoded application software programs that are commercially available for sale or lease.
analog signal: A continuous waveform that passes through a communications medium; used for voice communications. arithmetic-logic unit (ALU): Component of the CPU that performs the computer’s principal logic and arithmetic operations. artificial intelligence (AI): The effort to develop computer-based systems that can behave like humans, with the ability to learn languages, accomplish physical tasks, use a perceptual apparatus, and emulate human expertise and decision making. assembly language: A programming language developed in the 1950s that resembles machine language but substitutes mnemonics for numeric codes.

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