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Unformatted text preview: Vitamin C
By Charlotte Chan, Chelsea K.Martin, Tao Lee, Hayoung Ahn Historic Introduction
Historic Introduction History of Scurvy
History of Scurvy http://aplusmobilegraphics.com/images/Decal_Scurvy%20Dog.jpg http://www.talkingsquid.net/blogpix/lind.jpg The Extent of Scurvy
The Extent of Scurvy
Before the pathology of scurvy was discovered, scurvy was the number one killer of all sailors on voyages across the sea The First Clue
The First Clue
On advice of the Iroquois Indians, Cartier gave his men a tea brewed from the bark and leaves of the evergreen conifer, which cured the men within days http://www.survivaltopics.com/survival/a-native-american-cure-for-scurvy/ He named the tree arbor vitiae, “the tree of life” http://photos.demandstudios.com/80/92/fotolia_2972521_XS.jpg Lind and his Discovery
Lind and his Discovery In a controlled experiment, he gave 12 sailors who were suffering from scurvy a variety of popular cures of scurvy at the time
http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8054/Labs/Lab5/IMAGES/CURING%20SCURVY.JPG http://pested.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2010-04/citrus.jpg Lind and his Discovery
Lind and his Discovery Of all the sailors, only the 2 who had the fresh citrus drastically improved within days http://www.ediblegeography.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/a-treatise-on-scurvy2.jpg •Lind published his discovery in his Treatise on Scurvy in 1753 http://www.faqs.org/photo-dict/photofiles/list/6776/8982spoiled_food.jpg Despite Lind’s discovery of the cure of scurvy, Lind thought that scurvy was caused by failing digestive system due to eating the spoiled food kept onboard Lind’s Cure
Lind’s Cure + = p://www.photoshopessentials.com/images/type/effects/fire-text/photoshop-fire-text.jpg http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/images/ascorbicacid.j
http://www.joyfuljuicer.com/image-files/fresh_orange_juice01.jpg This proved to be disastrous because we now know that heating citrus juice destroys the vitamin C within the juice Captain James Cook His voyage was a success in terms of crew’s health since no one onboard His voyage was a success in terms of crew’s health since no one onboard died of scurvy http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/images2/cook_james_routes.jpg More failures
(unfermented beer) http://www.badbrew.com/images/Img34.gif Sir John Pringle http://jech.bmj.com/content/59/11/966/embed/graphic-1.gif http://blogs.crikey.com.au/rooted/files/2009/03/image-80-tap-water.gif + + http://scienceblogs.com/isisthescientist/skull-crossbones.png = http://marilynburgess.com/images/2009/06/Eat-Whole-Grains-and-Rich-in-Magnesium-Food-to-Prevent-Diabetes-Risk-2.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_4NsxaqK7h8E/R6UAvrbKmpI/AAAAAAAAA6g/N5Ck-TwbQS0/s400/Honey.jpg He believed that a simple a strict diet composed solely of He believed that a simple a strict diet composed solely of honey, water and grains would be better than a diet composed of variety of foods Blane and the Blane and the Royal Navy’s Response Gilbert Blane, a physician to the Royal Navy, conducted a similar experiment as Lind’s and again proved that a healthy dose of fresh citrus can prevent scurvy http://www.jmr.nmm.ac.uk/upload/img_200/d9818_blane_l.jpg http://warrelics.eu/forum/military_photos/equipment-field-gear/108940d1275157232-royal-navy-action-ration-tin-naval-action-ration-tin..jpg +
http://www.toomanymornings.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/smiling_orange.jpg Standard ration aboard the Royal Navy starting from 1795 Standard ration aboard the Royal Navy starting from 1795 Research on the Pathology of Research on the Pathology of Scurvy http://tricreek.schoolwires.com/lhs/lib/lhs/QuestionMark2.JPG Despite the discovery of the cures of scurvy, no one knew how it cured scurvy and what caused scurvy Research on the Pathology of Research on the Pathology of Scurvy
Axel Holst http://www.tidsskriftet.no/lts-img/2002/fig200217029.jpg Theodor Fröhlich http://www.tidsskriftet.no/lts-img/2002/fig200217030.jpg http://www.adelaidevet.com.au/files/images/guinea-pig---tan.jpg Guinea pigs developed scorbutic symptoms (scurvy like symptoms) after being Guinea pigs developed scorbutic symptoms (scurvy like symptoms) after being fed on a typical sailor’s diet Research on the Pathology of Research on the Pathology of Scurvy They discovered that the guinea pigs recovered almost immediately when given apples, (unboiled) cabbage, lemon juice, and potatoes They reasoned that there must be a “vital” substance made of “amines” that cured these guinea pigs Thus the term “vitamines” was coined http://media.rachaelrayshow.com/unmanaged/img/newfood/s5-apple.jpg
http://pested.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2009-03/potatoes112.jpg Furthermore, the food that had these Furthermore, the food that had these “vital” “amines” were termed “anti scorbutic” (to avert) (scurvy like symptoms)
Thus the name of vitamin C, “ascorbic” acid, was coined Isolation and Synthesis of Isolation and Synthesis of ascorbic acid
http://www.emustore.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/cabbage-juice-ulcers.jpg http://images.wikia.com/recipes/images/8/86/Paprika_powder.jpg http://images.mylot.com/userImages/images/postphotos/1733881.jpg Albert SzentGyörgyi
http://training.seer.cancer.gov/images/anatomy/endocrine/adrenal_gland.jpg http://www.rsc.org/images/EdmundHirst_tcm18-77531.jpg http://www.nndb.com/people/416/000100116/norman-haworth-1.jpg Norman Haworth Edmund Hirst Tadeus Reichstein All three men were awarded the Nobel Prize All three men were awarded the Nobel Prize http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/Thadeus_Reichstein_ETH-Bib_Portr_10137.jpg/225px-Thadeus_Reichstein_ETH-Bib_Portr_10137.jpg Ascorbic Acid = Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid = Vitamin C Commonly known as Vitamin C
Obtained from fresh fruits and vegetables
Essential for the synthesis of collagen
Act as antioxidant, protecting ourselves from very reactive free radicals
Prevents Scurvy Helps prevent stroke Helps stimulating the immune system Helps with the absorption of iron Protect the esophagus, oral cavity, stomach and pancreas from cancer newhorizonsnaturalhealthcare.com Scurvy
Commonly known as vitamin C deficiency intelleigentdental.com
intelleigentdental.com What are the symptoms?
What are the symptoms?
• Swollen and bleeding gums • Soreness and stiffness of the joins and lower extremities • Rigidity • Bleeding under the skin and in deep tissues • Slow wound healing • Anemia • www.nzma.org.nz/journal/ Perifollicular Petechiae
lifeinthefastlane.com Prolyl hydroxylase is inhibited Prolyl hydroxylase is inhibited by ascorbic acid deficiency Lack of vitamin C interferes Lack of vitamin C interferes with collagen formation Collagen
• Large stringlike molecule
• Group of protein with great tensile strength that act as connective tissue in our body
• Necessary for wound healing
• Contribute to nearly 1/3 of our body protein Why is asorbic acid required Why is asorbic acid required for collagen production? Ascorbic acid is a necessary coenzyme Ascorbic acid is a necessary coenzyme in collagen biosynthesis
By stabilizing the collagen triple helical structure, ascorbic acid stimulates procollagen secretion Enzyme of the production of collagen
Enzyme of the production of collagen Proply Hydroxylase Members of ironand 2oxoglutaratedependent dioxygenase eyznme family An enzyme for collagen formation Catalyzes the reaction of oxygen being incoporated into organic substrates which requires ascorbic acid, iron and 2oxoglutarate. Inability to walk due to Inability to walk due to Scurvy – 6 year old boy Scurvy joint Vs Normal joint
Scurvy joint Vs Normal joint How do we absorb ascorbic How do we absorb ascorbic acid? Absorbed in the small intestine through energy dependant process We are unable to synthesize ascorbic acid No storage site for ascorbic acid but some tissues contain higher concentrations Our source of ascorbic acid comes from our diet Obtain from citrus fruits and vegetables Daily requirement – up to 100mg/day Source of Vitamin C Source of Vitamin C FRUIT NAME Mg per 100g Lemon rob (fresh) 240 Orange juice 5080 papayas 30120 pineapples 2060 VEGETABLE
NAME Mg per 100g Cauliflower 7080 carrot 90150 Antioxidant
Antioxidant Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant in your body Vitamin C donates electrons to free radicals in the body and also becomes a free radical. “Free radical antioxidants” cause less damage.
healthfruit.com Helps Prevent Cancer
Helps Prevent Cancer
#1: By eliminating free radicals from the body. #2: By preventing the reaction of nitrosamines forming in the body. stop-the-clock.com hispanicallyspeakingnews.com Nitrosamines Nitrosamines •When you ingest nitrates your saliva converts them to nitrites
•Nitrites then react with amines from the diet
•Acids in the stomach can cause the reaction and nitrosamines can be formed. They are carcinogens. •Increased nitrosamine intake has been associated with stomach cancer. gihealth.com Heart Disease Heart Disease topnews.in HDL Cholesterol= good LDL Cholesterol = bad artofstuff.com Oxidized LDL= the worst
Can stick to artery walls and block them Therefore, a diet high in antioxidants like Vitamin C can help reduce
heart disease! fishoilblog.com Macular degeneration
Macular degeneration Studies have shown that a combination of Betacarotene, zinc, vitamin E & vitamin C help reduce the progression of macular degeneration. Bed Sores
Bed Sores Vitamin C is critical for people that are chronically ill and in the hospital for long periods of time. Vitamin C aids in the formation of collagen which keeps skin intact and elastic. Bed sores occur when patients rub their skin against bed sheets. seniorjournal.com Vitamin C as an Antibiotic?
Vitamin C as an Antibiotic? Vitamin C promotes the healing of tissues and supports immune function. Increases White Blood Cell Counts Precursor to antibody formation High doses of vitamin C have been shown to have synergistic effects when used with antibiotics Interesting Facts
Interesting Facts Do Oranges have the highest Do Oranges have the highest amount of Vitamin C? No… It’s green pepper!!!
No… It’s green pepper!!! ideaelevator.co QuickTimeª and a
are needed to see this picture. -Dr. Linus Pauling (who won two Noble Prizes in his
life time) thought that you should take in 10,000mg of
Vitamin C a day!
- If the typical orange contains 70mg of Vitamin C,
you would have to eat…. References
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