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Prolyl hydroxylase-1

Prolyl hydroxylase-1 - Vitamin C Vitamin C By Charlotte...

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Unformatted text preview: Vitamin C Vitamin C By Charlotte Chan, Chelsea K.Martin, Tao Lee, Hayoung Ahn Historic Introduction Historic Introduction History of Scurvy History of Scurvy http://aplusmobilegraphics.com/images/Decal_Scurvy%20Dog.jpg http://www.talkingsquid.net/blogpix/lind.jpg The Extent of Scurvy The Extent of Scurvy Before the pathology of scurvy was discovered, scurvy was the number one killer of all sailors on voyages across the sea The First Clue The First Clue On advice of the Iroquois Indians, Cartier gave his men a tea brewed from the bark and leaves of the evergreen conifer, which cured the men within days http://www.survivaltopics.com/survival/a-native-american-cure-for-scurvy/ He named the tree arbor vitiae, “the tree of life” http://photos.demandstudios.com/80/92/fotolia_2972521_XS.jpg Lind and his Discovery Lind and his Discovery In a controlled experiment, he gave 12 sailors who were suffering from scurvy a variety of popular cures of scurvy at the time http://www.culinate.com/hunk/55701 http://www.roseoil.in/admin/products_image/n http://coffeeassistant.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/white-vinegar.jpg http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8054/Labs/Lab5/IMAGES/CURING%20SCURVY.JPG http://pested.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2010-04/citrus.jpg Lind and his Discovery Lind and his Discovery Of all the sailors, only the 2 who had the fresh citrus drastically improved within days http://www.ediblegeography.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/a-treatise-on-scurvy2.jpg •Lind published his discovery in his Treatise on Scurvy in 1753 http://www.faqs.org/photo-dict/photofiles/list/6776/8982spoiled_food.jpg Despite Lind’s discovery of the cure of scurvy, Lind thought that scurvy was caused by failing digestive system due to eating the spoiled food kept onboard Lind’s Cure Lind’s Cure + = p://www.photoshopessentials.com/images/type/effects/fire-text/photoshop-fire-text.jpg http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/images/ascorbicacid.j http://www.joyfuljuicer.com/image-files/fresh_orange_juice01.jpg This proved to be disastrous because we now know that heating citrus juice destroys the vitamin C within the juice Captain James Cook His voyage was a success in terms of crew’s health since no one onboard His voyage was a success in terms of crew’s health since no one onboard died of scurvy http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/images2/cook_james_routes.jpg More failures More failures “sweet wort” (unfermented beer) http://www.badbrew.com/images/Img34.gif Sir John Pringle http://jech.bmj.com/content/59/11/966/embed/graphic-1.gif http://blogs.crikey.com.au/rooted/files/2009/03/image-80-tap-water.gif + + http://scienceblogs.com/isisthescientist/skull-crossbones.png = http://marilynburgess.com/images/2009/06/Eat-Whole-Grains-and-Rich-in-Magnesium-Food-to-Prevent-Diabetes-Risk-2.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_4NsxaqK7h8E/R6UAvrbKmpI/AAAAAAAAA6g/N5Ck-TwbQS0/s400/Honey.jpg He believed that a simple a strict diet composed solely of He believed that a simple a strict diet composed solely of honey, water and grains would be better than a diet composed of variety of foods Blane and the Blane and the Royal Navy’s Response Gilbert Blane, a physician to the Royal Navy, conducted a similar experiment as Lind’s and again proved that a healthy dose of fresh citrus can prevent scurvy http://www.jmr.nmm.ac.uk/upload/img_200/d9818_blane_l.jpg http://warrelics.eu/forum/military_photos/equipment-field-gear/108940d1275157232-royal-navy-action-ration-tin-naval-action-ration-tin..jpg + http://www.toomanymornings.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/smiling_orange.jpg Standard ration aboard the Royal Navy starting from 1795 Standard ration aboard the Royal Navy starting from 1795 Research on the Pathology of Research on the Pathology of Scurvy http://tricreek.schoolwires.com/lhs/lib/lhs/QuestionMark2.JPG Despite the discovery of the cures of scurvy, no one knew how it cured scurvy and what caused scurvy Research on the Pathology of Research on the Pathology of Scurvy Axel Holst http://www.tidsskriftet.no/lts-img/2002/fig200217029.jpg Theodor Fröhlich http://www.tidsskriftet.no/lts-img/2002/fig200217030.jpg http://www.adelaidevet.com.au/files/images/guinea-pig---tan.jpg Guinea pigs developed scorbutic symptoms (scurvy like symptoms) after being Guinea pigs developed scorbutic symptoms (scurvy like symptoms) after being fed on a typical sailor’s diet Research on the Pathology of Research on the Pathology of Scurvy They discovered that the guinea pigs recovered almost immediately when given apples, (unboiled) cabbage, lemon juice, and potatoes They reasoned that there must be a “vital” substance made of “amines” that cured these guinea pigs Thus the term “vitamines” was coined http://media.rachaelrayshow.com/unmanaged/img/newfood/s5-apple.jpg http://www.emustore.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/cabbage-juice-ulcers.jpg http://www.thebestjuicerreviews.com/image-files/lemons.jpg http://pested.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2009-03/potatoes112.jpg Furthermore, the food that had these Furthermore, the food that had these “vital” “amines” were termed “anti scorbutic” (to avert) (scurvy like symptoms) Thus the name of vitamin C, “ascorbic” acid, was coined Isolation and Synthesis of Isolation and Synthesis of ascorbic acid http://www.emustore.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/cabbage-juice-ulcers.jpg http://images.wikia.com/recipes/images/8/86/Paprika_powder.jpg http://images.mylot.com/userImages/images/postphotos/1733881.jpg Albert Szent­Györgyi http://training.seer.cancer.gov/images/anatomy/endocrine/adrenal_gland.jpg http://www.rsc.org/images/EdmundHirst_tcm18-77531.jpg http://www.nndb.com/people/416/000100116/norman-haworth-1.jpg Norman Haworth Edmund Hirst Tadeus Reichstein All three men were awarded the Nobel Prize All three men were awarded the Nobel Prize http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/Thadeus_Reichstein_ETH-Bib_Portr_10137.jpg/225px-Thadeus_Reichstein_ETH-Bib_Portr_10137.jpg Ascorbic Acid = Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid = Vitamin C Commonly known as Vitamin C Obtained from fresh fruits and vegetables Water soluble Essential for the synthesis of collagen Act as antioxidant, protecting ourselves from very reactive free radicals Prevents Scurvy Helps prevent stroke Helps stimulating the immune system Helps with the absorption of iron Protect the esophagus, oral cavity, stomach and pancreas from cancer newhorizonsnaturalhealthcare.com Scurvy Scurvy Commonly known as vitamin C deficiency intelleigentdental.com intelleigentdental.com What are the symptoms? What are the symptoms? • Swollen and bleeding gums • Soreness and stiffness of the joins and lower extremities • Rigidity • Bleeding under the skin and in deep tissues • Slow wound healing • Anemia • www.nzma.org.nz/journal/ Perifollicular Petechiae lifeinthefastlane.com Prolyl hydroxylase is inhibited Prolyl hydroxylase is inhibited by ascorbic acid deficiency Lack of vitamin C interferes Lack of vitamin C interferes with collagen formation Collagen Collagen • Large string­like molecule • Group of protein with great tensile strength that act as connective tissue in our body • Necessary for wound healing • Contribute to nearly 1/3 of our body protein Why is asorbic acid required Why is asorbic acid required for collagen production? ­Ascorbic acid is a necessary coenzyme ­Ascorbic acid is a necessary coenzyme in collagen biosynthesis ­By stabilizing the collagen triple helical structure, ascorbic acid stimulates procollagen secretion Enzyme of the production of collagen Enzyme of the production of collagen Proply Hydroxylase Members of iron­and 2­oxoglutarate­dependent dioxygenase eyznme family An enzyme for collagen formation Catalyzes the reaction of oxygen being incoporated into organic substrates which requires ascorbic acid, iron and 2­oxoglutarate. Inability to walk due to Inability to walk due to Scurvy – 6 year old boy Scurvy joint Vs Normal joint Scurvy joint Vs Normal joint How do we absorb ascorbic How do we absorb ascorbic acid? Absorbed in the small intestine through energy dependant process We are unable to synthesize ascorbic acid No storage site for ascorbic acid but some tissues contain higher concentrations Our source of ascorbic acid comes from our diet Obtain from citrus fruits and vegetables Daily requirement – up to 100mg/day Source of Vitamin C Source of Vitamin C FRUIT NAME Mg per 100g Lemon rob (fresh) 240 Orange juice 50­80 papayas 30­120 pineapples 20­60 VEGETABLE NAME Mg per 100g Cauliflower 70­80 carrot 90­150 Antioxidant Antioxidant Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant in your body Vitamin C donates electrons to free radicals in the body and also becomes a free radical. “Free radical antioxidants” cause less damage. healthfruit.com Helps Prevent Cancer Helps Prevent Cancer #1: By eliminating free radicals from the body. #2: By preventing the reaction of nitrosamines forming in the body. stop-the-clock.com hispanicallyspeakingnews.com Nitrosamines Nitrosamines •When you ingest nitrates your saliva converts them to nitrites •Nitrites then react with amines from the diet •Acids in the stomach can cause the reaction and nitrosamines can be formed. They are carcinogens. •Increased nitrosamine intake has been associated with stomach cancer. gihealth.com Heart Disease Heart Disease topnews.in HDL Cholesterol= good LDL Cholesterol = bad artofstuff.com Oxidized LDL= the worst Can stick to artery walls and block them Therefore, a diet high in antioxidants like Vitamin C can help reduce heart disease! fishoilblog.com Macular degeneration Macular degeneration Studies have shown that a combination of Beta­carotene, zinc, vitamin E & vitamin C help reduce the progression of macular degeneration. Bed Sores Bed Sores Vitamin C is critical for people that are chronically ill and in the hospital for long periods of time. Vitamin C aids in the formation of collagen which keeps skin intact and elastic. Bed sores occur when patients rub their skin against bed sheets. seniorjournal.com Vitamin C as an Antibiotic? Vitamin C as an Antibiotic? Vitamin C promotes the healing of tissues and supports immune function. Increases White Blood Cell Counts Pre­cursor to antibody formation High doses of vitamin C have been shown to have synergistic effects when used with antibiotics Interesting Facts Interesting Facts Do Oranges have the highest Do Oranges have the highest amount of Vitamin C? No… It’s green pepper!!! No… It’s green pepper!!! ideaelevator.co QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. -Dr. Linus Pauling (who won two Noble Prizes in his life time) thought that you should take in 10,000mg of Vitamin C a day! - If the typical orange contains 70mg of Vitamin C, you would have to eat…. References References Baron JH. 2009. Sailors' scurvy before and after James Lind - a reassessment. Nutrition Baron Reviews 67(6):315-332. Reviews Books RH. 2008. Healing with Vitamins. New York: Rodale Inc. Bown SR. 2003. Scurvy. Toronto: Thomas Allen Publishers. Braen G. R, Joshi Prashant, "Chapter 199. Vitamins and Herbals" (Chapter). Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski JS, Cline DM, Ma OJ, Cydulka RK, Meckler GD: Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 7e: http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=6378672. Carlyle EI. 2004. Stark, William (1740 -1770). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Carlyle Oxford University Press. p. 2004. Oxford Durzan DJ. 2009. Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life". Journal of Ethnobiology and Durzan Ethnomedicine 5. Ethnomedicine Glouberman S. 2009. Knowledge transfer and the complex story of scurvy. Journal of Glouberman Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15(3):553-557. Evaluation Hussein A. Algahtani APA, Imad M. Khojah, Ali M. Al-Khathaamic. 2009. Inability to walk due to scurvy: a forgotten diesase Annals of Saudi Medicine 30(4):325-328. Kuellmer V. 2000. Ascorbic Acid. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. Weinstein PB, S. Zlotkin. 2001. An orange a day keep the doctor away: scurvy in the year 2000. Pediatrics 55(September 2001). M.D. FRK. 1953. The Use of Vitamin C as an Antibiotic. Journal of Applied Nutrition 6:274-278. Michael Davies JA, David Partridge. 1993. Vitamin C: It's Chemistry and Biochemistry. Royal Society of Chemistry. Peterkofsky B. 1991. Ascorbate requirement for hydroxylation and secretion of procollagen: relationshipto inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54(6):1135-1140. Rachelle J.S. Galvina WKR, Lois G. Lenz, William M. Pierce, Jr. 1992. Smokeless tobacco contains an inhibitor of prolyl hydroxylase activity. Toxicology Letters 62(2-3):301,310. Raili Myllyla LT, Kari Kivirikko. 1977. Mechanism of the Prolyl Hydroxylase Reaction. European Journal of Biochemistry 80(2):349-357. Schwarcz J. 2007. An Apple A Day The Myths, Misconceptions and Truths abou the food we eat. . Harper Collins Schwarcz J. 2010. Dr. Joe's Brain Sparks- 179 Inspiring and Enlightening Inquiries into the Science of Everyday Life. Doubleday Canada. p. 320. Steve Hickey HR. 2004. Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C. THomas G. Smith NPT. 2010. ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING. Mary Ann Liebery, Inc. ...
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