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C ULTURAL A NTHROPOLOGY C HAPTER 5 Communication The word communicate come from a latin verb which means to share, to make common. We communicate by agreeing. Pg. 73 Nonverbal Human Communication Even silence can be a communication. Nonverbal communication is also culturally variable. Some nonverbal is universal in all humans. Many gestures are culturally variable. Kinesics is the study of communication by nonverbal or nonvocal means, including posture, mannerisms, body movement, facial expressions, and signs and gestures. Or Body Language. An accent can tell a lot about a person’s background. Paralanguage refers to all optional vocal features or silences that communicate meaning apart from the language itself. Pg. 74 Nonhuman Communication Karl Von Frisch discovered that Australian honey bees communicate details. A sentence that is symbolic communication means at least two things. First that it has meaning even when it is referent (whatever it is referred to) is not present. Second, the meaning is arbitrary; the receiver of the message could not guess its meaning just from the sound and does not know the meaning instinctively. Symbols have to be learned. Vervet Eagles communicate symbolically. Primates vocal systems are closed , different calls are not combined to produce new, meaningful utterances. Humans systems are open , governed by complex rules about how sounds and sequences of sounds can be combined to produce an infinite variety of meanings. Pg. 75 The Origins of Language Perhaps humans began 100,000 years. Earliest writing found 5,000 years. Noam Chomsky and other theoreticians of grammar suggest that there is an innate language-acquisition device in the human brain. Pg. 76 Pidgin and Creole Languages Pidgin is a simplified language drawn from the master’s languages. Developed by slaves. It lacks many of the building blocks found in languages of whole societies. Such as prepositions and auxiliary verbs. Many pidgin languages developed into creole languages. May bring us closer to the origin of human language Pg. 77-78 Children’s Acquisition of Language
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All children worldwide learn language at the same rate and it may be genetically ingrained in humans. Its like basic grammar is imprinted into the human mind. But that may not be true because not all children develop the same world over. There are tools linguists use to study languages. Pg. 79 Descriptive Linguistics Grammar to the linguist consists of actual, often unconscious principles that predict how most people talk. Linguists have had to invent special concepts and methods of transcription to permit them to describe 1. The rules or principles that predict how sounds are mode and how they are used; sounds used interchangeably in words without creating a difference in meaning, phonology . 2. How sound sequences convey meaning and how they are strung together to form words, morphology. 3. How words are strung together to form phrases and sentences, syntax . Language can help one understand another’s culture.
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