ANTH Chapter 6 & 7


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ULTURAL A NTHROPOLOGY C HAPTER 6 Subsistence Economies : An economy where able-bodied adults are engaged in getting food for themselves and their families. Foraging Foraging is a food getting strategy that obtains wild plant and animal resources through gathering, hunting, scavenging, or fishing. Foragers today are referred to as hunter-gatherers , which are not very many and live in the marginal areas of the earth, deserts, the arctic and the tropical forests. In modern times only about 5 million people are foragers. Pg. 95 Australian Aborigines In the 1960’s they still lived by hunting and gathering as described by Richard Gould. Their diet was mostly plant food. Pg. 96 The Inuit (Eskimo) They eat mostly sea and land mammals. Ernest Burch describes them in the beginning of the 19 th century. They kill sea mammals with a harpoon and a lance from a kayak. Woman butcher and also hunt small. Currently they mostly work and have modern conveniences. Pg. 96 General Features of Foragers Most live in small communities, are nomadic, do not recognize individual land rights, do not have different classes, no political officials, division of labor is based on age and gender, men hunt animals and women gather plant foods. Complex Foragers There is still considerable variability among societies that depend on foraging. The pacific coast and New Guinea coastal people are examples. The Tlingit of southeastern Alaska and the Nimpkish of British Columbia depend on annual Salmon runs. Both have class systems and slaves. Inequality and competitiveness. In New Guinea about 40 societies depend on foraging. Paul Rosco found the the dependence on fishing is associated with density of population and settlement size. Pg. 98 Food Production About 10,000 years ago many peoples made the changeover to food production . They began to cultivate and then domesticate plants and animals. Anthropologists distinguish three major types of food production systems- horticulture, intensive agriculture, and pastoralism. Horticulture The growing of crops of all kinds with relatively simple tools and methods, in the absence of permanently cultivated fields. The tools are generally hand tools and the methods do not include fertilization, irrigation, etc. There are two kinds of horticulture. The more common involves independence on extensive (shifting) cultivation, the land is worked for short periods and then left idle for some years, the use the slash and burn techniques so that nutrients can be returned to the soil. The other kind involves dependence on long-growing tree crops. They both may be practiced in the same society. The Kayapo of the Brazilian amazon leave in search of game for months. The Yanomamo
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This note was uploaded on 09/12/2011 for the course ANTHRO 100 taught by Professor Drover during the Spring '11 term at Golden West College.

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