ANTH Chapter 10 & 11


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C ULTURAL A NTHROPOLOGY C HAPTER 10 : S EX G ENDER AND C ULTURE Researchers now prefer to speak of the differences between males and females as gender differences , reserving the term sex differences for purely biological differences. There may be more categories of gender like “other”. Gender Concepts Transgender is a term for someone who feels that their assigned at birth gender does not fit them well. The Cheyenne native Americans of the great plains, recognized three genders, “Two spirit” people. Europeans referred to them as berdache . Female two spirits occurs in a number of North American societies like the Kasha of Yukon Territory, the Klamath of southern Oregon, and Mohave of the Colorado River and could marry women. In Oman there is a third gender called xanith . Pg. 173 Physique and Physiology Humans are sexually dimorphic ; the two sexes of our species are different in size and appearance. What we see may be the result of both culture and genes. Pg 174 Gender Roles Productive and Domestic Activities Because role assignments have a clear cultural component, we speak of them as gender roles . There seems to be universal patterns of assignments. Four explanations and theories: strength theory, compatibility with child care theory, economy of effort theory, and expendability theory. Strength Theory: focuses on the greater strength of males. Compatibility with child care: emphasizes that women’s tasks need to be compatible with childcare. Economy of effort theory : may help explain patterns that cannot readily be explained by the strength and compatibility theories. Expendability theory: suggests that men will tend to do the dangerous work in a society because the loss of men is not as disadvantageous. Many Agta woman of the Philippines hunt pig and dear, the kill almost 30 percent of the large game. . Hunting by women is also common among the Aka, women spend 18 percent of their time net hunting, which is more than the men do. Chipewyan women hunt small animals. In industrial society gender division of labor seems to disappear when machines replace human strength…pg 177 Relative Contributions to Work In the US work is considered to only be with job earning income, not homemakers. Household work tended to be ignored. Division of labor by gender focuses on primary subsistence activities , gathering, hunting, fishing, herding, farming, and less attention is paid to secondary subsistence activities , those that involve processing and preparation of food. Pg 177 Overall Work Women typically work more hours total than men in horticulture and intensive agricultural societies.
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Subsistence Work Primary subsistence activities are primarily located further from home, female and male contributions are more variable cross culturally. In some societies women have contributed more to economy than men. Women did all the fishing among the Tchambuli of New Guinea in the 1930’s. In contrast men did all the work among the Toda of India. In societies that depend on hunting, fishing, and herding for most of their calories, men usually contribute more. Like the
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