ANTH Chapter 12 - CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY CHAPTER 12 MARITAL...

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ULTURAL A NTHROPOLOGY C HAPTER 12 M ARITAL R ESIDENCE AND K INSHIP Here and in many industrial societies we are oriented toward this pattern of marital residence-neolocal (new place). Children are trained to move away from home. Of the 565 societies only 5 percent follow this practice. Patterns of Marital Residence 1. Patrilocal Residence: The son stays and the daughter leaves, so that the married couple lives with or near the husband’s parents (67 percent of all societies). 2. Matrilocal Residence: The daughter stays and the son leaves, so that the married couple lives with or near the wife’s parents (15 percent of all societies). 3. Bilocal Residence: Either the son or the daughter leaves, so that the married couple lives with or near either the wife’s or the husbands parents (7 percent of all societies). 4. Avunculocal Residence: Both son and daughter normally leave, but the son and his wife settle with or near his mother’s brother (4 percent of all societies). When the couples live with or near the kin of a spouse, the couple may live in the same household with those kin, creating an extended family or they may live independently. They are called unilocal residence patterns because they specify just one pattern. The fifth is neolocal 5. Neolocal Residence: Both son and daughter leave; married couples live apart from relatives of both spouses (5 percent of societies). Among the Tiv of Nigeria the extended family consists of the great father. The Structure of Kinship In some societies kinship connections have an important bearing on matters of life and death. Recall the social system of Romeo and Juliet. Types of Affiliation with Kin There are three main types. The first two types are based on the rules of descent , which are rules that connect individuals with particular set of kin because of known or presumed common ancestry. Unilineal descent refers to the fact that a person is affiliated with a group of kin through descent links of one sex only, either males or females only. Thus unilineal descent can be either patrilineal or matrilineal. 1. Patrilineal descent: affiliated individuals with kin of both dexes related to them through men only. Transmitted only through sons. Just as patrilocal residence in much more common the matrilocal residence, patrilineal descent is more common than matrilineal. 2. Matrilineal descent: affiliates individuals with kin of both sexes related to them through women only . Ethnohistorical analysis confirms that Native American societies like the Omaha have patrilineal descent and the Chuuk still have matrilineal descent. Ambilineal descent affiliates individuals with kin related to them through mean or women. The three rules are usually mutually exclusive. Some societies have
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This note was uploaded on 09/12/2011 for the course ANTHRO 100 taught by Professor Drover during the Spring '11 term at Golden West College.

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ANTH Chapter 12 - CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY CHAPTER 12 MARITAL...

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