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Unformatted text preview: C ULTURAL A NTHROPOLOGY C HAPTER 3 Theoretical Orientation: a general idea about how phenomena are to be explained. Theories: more specific explanations that can be tested with empirical evidence. Early Evolution Darwinism had a strong impact on theory. Early thought is that culture evolved uniformly and progressively. Edward B. Tylor and Lewis Henry Morgan: 19 th Century Anthropologists believed that culture evolves uniformly and progressively. Lewis Henry Morgan: A new york lawyer who wrote Ancient Society. Pg. 44 Franz Boas: the leading opponent of evolutionism, whose historical particularism rejected the way in which early evolutionsists had assumed that universal laws governed all human culture. Early theory cannot explain the details of cultural evolution and variation. Race Theory came about due to Systema natura , a theory by Carolus Linnaeus, which placed humans in the same order as primates and placed them into four races (American, European, Asiatic, and African). It was believed that raced were fixed in nature, and that some cannot be civilized. Johann Blumenbach: founder of the field of biological anthropology, divided humans into 5 races (Caucasian, Mongoloan, Malayan, Ethiopian, and American). Samual Morton: a Doctor that linked race with behavior and intelligence. Wrote Crania Americana. Louis Agassiz: strong critic of evolution and strong supporter of race theory. Pg. 45 Francis Galton: aimed to manipulate races by selective breeding. Eugenics: Selective Breeding. Diffusionism: Theory that Egyptians started higher civilization, which then spread and that people prefer to borrow that innovate. Genus: a group of related species. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: characteristics could be inherited and therefore species could evolve. Georges Cuvier: in 19 th century was a leading opponent of evolution. James Hutton: geologist who questions catastrophism (that Noahs Ark ordeal had replaced with new creation), his work was mostly ignored. Sir Charles Lyell: Wrote Volumes of the Principles of Geology was highly regarded and had the concept of uniformitarianism, that the earth was constantly being shaped and reshaped by natural forces that have operated over a long time. His works were read avidly by Darwin during the Beagle. They were good friends. Pg. 42 Charles Darwin: he thought species evolution through natural selection. Rejected things were created in a fixed form. Alfred Russel Wallace: sent Darwin a manuscript that matched his own conclusions. Presented the theory together to their colleagues. Pg. 43 Neoevolution Leslie A. White: attacked the Boasian emphasis on historical particularism and championed the evolutionist orientation....
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