BISC220 - Exam 2

BISC220 - Exam 2 - Name 1D Number _ Second 50 minute...

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Unformatted text preview: Name 1D Number _ Second 50 minute Examination also 220-Spring 2010 - 12 March 2010 - Instructions for filling in the Blue Scantron Answer Sheet: 1. Enter your name in the NAME field (your last name first), and fill in the appropriate bubbles. . ' . 2, Enter your USCSTUDEN?‘ ID N UMBER in the field labeled IDENTIFICATION WEK and 511 in" the bubbles. I - ' 3. Circle your TA’s name in this table and enter his/her code in 0&P columns in'the SPECIAL CODES field and fill in the bubbles. I ' e TA’s Code. J m Bruno 00 . Matthew _ YangHo (David) _ YouflgKyoung _ .. Jessiea l Ledesrna _ 04 . _ _ i Melissa Madison 05 Yunxiang I Mu. ' 06 ' '07 Melissa ' ' 08 Yukai . Zhao 0-9 ' Erin England _ 10 ' 4. Bubble in your answers to questions 1— 46 with a pencil on SIDE 1‘ Be sure to fill in ' the entire circle. Fully erase all Im'stalcest ' - ' Instructions for the Written Portion of the Exam: 1. Write your name and you: USC Student ID number on the top' of each page. 2. ONLYexams written in PEN can be subnntted for a reu'grade. If you make a mistake do not use white-Out, just cross it out. 3. When you are done turn in the entire exam with the Blue seantron Answer Sheet to‘ . _ your TA. ' Seoon'd Hoorly EXaminatio'n BISC 220 Spring 2010 '12 March 2010 Name - .ID Number I This examination has 10 pages and 49 questions. Be sure you have a complete examination. Please put your name and USC ID number on the top of each page. Remember to use your time _ wisely during the examination period. Good luck from ali your teaching staff. 1. How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that have replicated their DNA and are just about to begin meiosis? . a. They have twice the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA. b. They have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA. c. They have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA. .e ' d. They have half the number of Chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA. \.° 1 - e. Theyhave half the amount of cytoplasm and twice the amount of DNA. .r . 2. MPF'reaches its threshold (activating) concentration at the end of which stage in the figure (right)? ' _ ' a; l b. H c. Ill .d. W_ I e. V 3. Which of the following statements is true? _ W hen signal molecules first bind to receptor ' tyrosine kinases, the receptors phosphorylate a number of nearby molecules. _ {biiln response to some Géproteinumediated signals, a special type of lipid molecule associated with the plasma membrane is cleaved to form IF?) andcalcium. - . /In most cases, signal molecules interact with the Cell at the plasma membrane and ‘ then enter the cell and eventually the nucleus. d. Toxins such as those that cause botulisrn and cholera interfere with the ability of activated G proteins to hydrolyze GTP to GDP, resulting in phosphodies terase activity in the absence of an appropriate molecule. - _e_. Protein lunase A activation is one possible result of signal molecules binding to G protein—linked receptors. Amount of DNA in nucleus 4. glycolysis most of the energy of gluCOSe is a. transferred to ADP, forming ATP. _ b. transferred directly to ATP. (3. retained in the pyimvate. d. stored in the NADH produced. ' . _ _ e. used to phosphorylatefructose to form fnictose-fiaphosphate. 5. are carbohydrates and fats considered high energy foods? a. They have a lot of oxygen atoms. . ' . ' ' ' ' - - - b. They have no nitrogen in their 7 I _c. They Can have very long carbon skeletcins. _ d. They have a lot of electrons associated with hydrogen. '_ .IegThey are easily reduced. - ' I Name ID Number— 6. Which of the following is true concerning cancer cells? _ .a. They do not exhibit density—dependent inhibition when growing in culture. b. When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle. c. They are not subject to cell Cycle controls. ' d. b and c only e. a, b, and c 7. How many reduced djnucleotides would be produced with four turns of the citric acid _ cycle? - ' v _ .. a; .1 and 4 NADH 6 an e». b. 2 FADHZ and s Nana -- Cl» 3 in n a c. 4 FADHZ and 12 NADH . *- - a1 FAD and. 4 NAD+ (C’- 4 FAD+ and 12 NAD+ WA 8. Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere glycolysis? % an agent that reacts with oxygen and depletes its concentration in the cell ,3. an agent that binds to pyruvate and inactivates it _ ' gran agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized ,zl.’ an agent that oxidizes NADPH to NADP-i- ' A an agent that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron transport chain 9. A young animal has never had much energy. Heis brought to a veterinarian for help and is sent to the hospital for some tests. There they discover his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactate than normal. Of the following, which is the best explanauon of his condition? @His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane. I ' _ b. His cells cannot move NADH from glycoiysis into the mitochondria. c. His cells contain something that inhibits okygen use in his mitochondria. d. His cells lack the enzyhae in glycolysis that fem-rs pyruvate. _ ' e. His cells have a defective electron transport chain, so glucose goes to lactate instead of to acetyl CoA. ' ' 10. Starting with one molecule of glucose, the "net" products of glycolysis are x 2 NAD+, 2 H+, vaate, 2 gig, and 2 H20. _ b. 2 NADH, 2 PH, _g__m;gme, gags, and 2 H20. we % 2 FfiDI—IZ, 2 pyruvate, 4 ATP, and 2 H20. ' - 3 d. s (:02, 6 H20, 2 ATP, and gpfigvate. ,2: 6 (:02, 6 H20, 3‘6 an), and 2 citrate. 11. For a species with a haploid number of 20 chromosomes, how many different combinations of mammal and paternal chromosomes. are possible for the gametes? a;20 - - - ._ . _ _ d. 920 I b.40 -- " _ . .. ' . _ e-‘Abo'ut1 million . c.460 _ ' I I _ ' __ ' ' I . I . a”? . I r: ’,,?:?f;=’ k‘ I , ' 2‘ viz: Name ' 1D Number_ 12. Mammals have two receptors for catecholamines such as epinephrine. Cardiac muscle cells have beta 1 receptors that promote increased heart rate._Some drugs that slow heart rate are called beta blockers. Smooth muscle cells, however, have beta 2 receptors that increase muscle contraction. Agonis ts or antagonists of either of these receptors are often used to treat diseases. The use of beta 2 antagonist drugs may be useful in asthma because ' I a. they may increase constriction of the skeletal muscle of the chest wall. b. they may increase heart rate and therefore allow the patient to get more oxygen _ circulated. ' I '_ _ c. they may dilate the bronchioles by relaxing their smooth muscle. d. they may override the beta blockers that the patient is already taking. ' e. they may obstruct all G protein—mediated receptors. 13. triploid cell (sometimes formed after errors in meiosis and fertilization) contains three sets of chromosomes. In a study of a cancer, you find a ttiploid cell'ftom a species with a normal diploid number of 42 . What is the most likely Chromosomal complement of this cell? a. 63 chromosomes in 31 pairs of sister chromatlds and one non—duplicated sex chromOsome' _ b. 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3 c. 63 chromosomes, each with three chromatids d. 21 chromosome pairs and 21 unique chromosomes e. 63 unique chromosomes formed by errors in crossing over i 14. Consider the progress curve (right) for a simple. binlolecular conversion of A+ B —)~ "l" D carried out in either the absence or presence of an enzyme. Which of the following represents the activation energy required for the enzyme-catal zed reverse J reaction? “M - a.c—:a I b.b+d -c.b d.c e.d Free Ensngy »--——>» 15. HOW do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle? ' a. The daughter cells have half the amountof cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA. b. The daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA. c. The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and half. the amount of. DNA. d. The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes'and the same amount of DNA. ' ' '. _ '. ' e. The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and twice the amount of DNA. . - ' Progress oi the Reaction —) 16. The ATP made during femaentatlon is generated by which of the following? .. ' a. the electron transport chain _ ' ' d. oxidative phosphorylatlon b. substratewlevel phosphorylatlon . _ ' _e. aerobic respirathn ' ' c. chemiosmosis . _ _ ' ' - ' " " Name - ID Number 17. The splitting of carbon dioxide to form oxygen gas and carbon compomids occurs dating . . a. photosynthesis. ,b’. respiration. _ both photoSynthesis and respiration. neither photosynthesis nor respiration. e. photorespiration. - 5?. 23‘ 18. diagram in the figure'at the tight represents -/ _ prophase I of meiosis? ' a. I b. H ' c. (1V e..Vl 19. In thylakoids, protons travel through ATI synthase g 3% R: . A Rd ...:: ' f / \ from the strenia to the thylakoid space. Thereforethe catalytic "kn-obs" of ATP synthase would be located a. on the side facing the thylalroid space. b. on the ATP molecules themselves. c. on the pigment molecules of PSI and PSII. d. on the stroma side of the membrane. _ e. built into the center of the thylakoid stack (granum). 20. In general, a signal transmitted via phosphorylation of a series of proteins a. brings a conformational change to each protein. b. requires binding of a hormone to a cytosol receptor. c. cannot occur in yeasts because they lack'protein phosphatases. (1. requires phosphorylase acnvity. ' I e. allows target cells to change their shape and therefore their activity. 21. When a. glucose molecule loses a hydrogen atom as the result of an oxidation—reduction I reaction, the molecule becomes _ I a. dehydrated. _ - - reduced. ,3. hydrogenated. '_ e. an oxidizing agent. c. a reducing agent. - 22. Increasing the Substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome which of I eeW' W a. denaturization of the enzyme ' d. saturation of the enzyme ' b. allosteric inhibition _ - .acnyity c. competitive inhibition . ' . e. insufficient 'cofactors 23. Which of the following is (are) true of ligandagated ion channels? 'a. They are important in the nervous system. _ _ _ b. They- 1ead to changes in sodium and calcium concentrations in cells. . - c. They open or'close in response to a chemical signal. _d._ Only a and h aretrue. ' e. a, b, and c are true. - Name - ' ID Number“ 24. Paracrine signaling a. involves secreting cells acting on nearby target cells by discharging a local regulator / into the extracellular fluid. ' ff requires nerve cells to release a neurotransmitter into the synapse. _ . occurs only in paracrine yeast cells. ,rdf has been found in plants but not animals. /€ involves mating factors attaching to target cells and causing production of new paracnne cells. 25-. Which of the following are-chemical messengers that pass through the plasma membrane of 'cells and have receptor molecules in the cytoplasm? ' a. insulin b. testosterone c. CAB/ll) d. epinephrine e. serotonin 26. The toxin of man's modems causes profuse diarrhea because it (-2 a. modifies a G protein involved in regulating salt and water secretion. b. decreases the cytosolic concentration of I calcium ions, making the cells hypotonic to- the intestinal cells. . c. binds with adenylyl cyclase and mggers the formation of cAMP. d. signals inositol trisphosphate to become a second messenger for the release of calcium. ' _ . ' e. modifies calrnodulin and activates a cascade of protein kinases. _ 2?. When oxygen is released as a result of ph'otosfllthesiB, it is a byproduct of which of the following? . _ a. reducing NADP+ _ ' I - d. the electron transfer System of b. splitting the water molecules ' photosystem I I c. chemiosmosis I _ - e. the actiOn of rubisco 28- An organism you find in the jungles of Chromesome 12; either Eu or'———|— Costa Rica is diploid. Genetic analysis shows blue ' ' Orange _ I that it has either blue or orange wings as the Chromosome 19: either ——1— or -'-+———— consequence of a gene on chromosome 12, ' . long _ ShOf‘I and either long or short antennae as the result of a second gene on Chromosome 19 (figure, ' above). A female with a paternal set of one orange and one long gene and a mammal set of one blue and one short gene would be ercpected to produce which of the-following types of eggs after meiosis? ' _ ' - . ,af All eggs will have maternal types of gene combinations. fl. All eggs will have paternal types of gene combinations. _ c. Half the eggs will have maternal and half will have paternal combinations. (1. Each egg has 1/ 4 chance of having blue long, blue shorg'orange long, or Orange short Combinations. _ _ '- . ' ' I ' . . .-6. Each egg has a 3 / 4 chance of having blue long, blue short, orange long,_or orange: short combinations. . . ' . . ' - Name ID Number— /_ _ 29. Among enzymes, kinases catalyze phosphorylation, while phosphatases catalyze removal 67%" _ of phosphate(s). A cell's use of these enzymes can therefore function as an on-off switch for various processes. Which of the following is fithher involved? - a; the change in a'protein's charge leading to a conformational change 121. the change in a protein's charge leading to cleavage c. a changein the optimal pH at'which a reaction will occur (1. a change in the optimal temperature at which a reaction will occur ' e. the excision of one or more peptides 30. A number Of systems for pumping ions across membranes are powered by ATP. Such ATP—powered pumps are often called ATPases although they don't often hydrolyze ATP unless they are simultaneously transporting ions. Because small increases in calcium ions in the cytosol nigger a number of different intracellular reacuons, Cells keep the cytosolic calcium concentration quite low under normal conditions, using ATP—powered calcirun pumps. For example, muscle cells transport calcium from the cytosol into the membranous System called the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). If a resting muscle cell's cytosol has a free I calcium ion concentration of 10—7 1 while the concentration in the SR is 10—2 M/ then how is the ATPase acting? _ -' a. The ATP must be powering an inflow of calcium from the outside of the cell into the SR. b. ATP must be transferring Pi. to the SR to enable this to occur. c. ATPase activity must be pumping calcium from the cytosol to the SR against the I concentration gradient (1. The calcium ions must be diffusing back into the SR along the concentration gradient. e. The route of calcium ions must be from SR to .the cytosoi, to the cell's environment. 31. Measurements of the amount of DNA per nucleus were taken on a large number of cells from a growing fungus. The measured DNA levels ranged fiom 3 to 6 picograms per I a g .._ nucleus. In which stage of the cell cycle was a nucleus with 4.6 picograms of DNA? Egret”; R we?" ' a. G0 13. G1 ' c.' G2 (1. S e. M " f I, at”? e15“ W 32. Which statement descfibes the functioning of photosyste ,a? Light energy excites electrons. that are transferred directly to ferredoxin. . xii? The excitation is passed along to a molecule of P700 chlorophyll in the photosynthetic unit. [:5 The P680 chlorophyll donates a of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+. _ - ' . I Q. The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water. e. The splitting of water yields molecular carbon dioxide as a by—product. 33- When electrons flow along the electron transport Chains of mitochondria, which of the (Z following changes occurs? ' . . - I ya? The pH of the matrix increases. _ {5. ATP synthase pumps protons by active transport. -The electrons gain free energy. ' - 'd. The cytochromes phosphorylate ADP. to form'ATP. _ /¢_NAD'+ oxidized. ' - Name ID Number_ 34. Theodor W. E-ngelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added - aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light What did Engelmarm conclude about the congregation-of bacteria in the red and blue areas? a. Bacteria released excess carbon dioxide in these areas. _ . b. Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature of the red and blue light. ' ' c. Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released. _ d. Bacteria are attracted to red and blue light and thus these wavelengths are more reactive than other wavelengflis. I e. Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an inerease in the temperature caused by an increase in photosynflnesis. ' 35. During aerobic respirauon, which of the following directly donates electrons to the electron transport chain at the lowest energy level? _ a. NAD-l— b. NADH C. ATP (1. ADP + Pi e. FADHZ 36. The centromere is a region in which _- a._ chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase. b. metaphase chromosomes become aligned at the metaphase plate. .3? ,e’.’ chromosomes are grouped during telophase. i \ ' ,d.’ the nucleus is located prior to mitosis. if new spindle microtubules form at either end. 3?. When you have a severe fever, what may be a grave consequence if this is not controlled? _ a. destruction of your enzymes' primary structure ' ,bf removal of amine groups from-your proteins c. change in the folding of enzymes . removal of the amino acids in active sites _ fe. of enzymes to inappropriate substrates # 38. Density—dependent inhibition is explained by which of the following? _ 3. As cells become more numerous, they begin to squeeze against each other, restricting their size and ability to produce control factors. _ b. As cells become more numerous, the cell surface proteins of one cell contact the adjoining cells and they stop dividing. I _ ' ff As cells become more numerous, the protein lrinases theyr produce begin to compete with each other, such that the proteins produced by" one cell essentially cancel those produced by its neighbor; _ ' .. . {d7 As cells become more numerous, more and more of them enter the S phase of the cell cycle. ' ' - . . - - ' _ ' _I . As cells become more numerous, the level of waste products increases, eventually 5 . slowing down metabolism - ' ' _ Name ID Number_ _ ' 39. It is possible to prepare vesicles from portions of the inner membrane of the. ‘35 mitochondria]. components. Which one of the following processes could still be carried on by this isolated inner membrane? a. the citric acid cycle I - d. redncn'on of NAD+ _ oxidative phosphoryiation _ both the citric acid cycle and figlycolysis and fermentation - - . oxidative phosphorylation 40. \Which of the following describes cell communication systems? I . a. Ceil signaling evolved more recently than systems 'such as the immune system of vertebrates. I . I I b. Communicau'ng cells are usually close together. c. Most signal receptors are bound to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. d. Lipid phosphoryiation is a major mechanism of transduction. e. In response to a signal, the cell may alter activities by changes in cytosol activity or in transcription of RNA. ' 41. Caffeine is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase. Therefore, the cells of a person who has recently consumed coffee would have increased levels of a. tyrosine kinases _ . _ ' d. adenylyl cyclase. b. GTP. e. activated G proteins._' c. CAMP; ' - 42. If an enzyme is added to a solution where its substrate and product are in equilibrium, what would occur? . 3. Additional product would be formed. 1). Additional substrate would be formed. c. The reaction would change from endergonic to. exergonic. d. The free energy of the system would change. ' e. Nothing; the reaction would stay at equilibrium. 4?). G. proteins and G—protein—linked receptors a. are found onlyr in animal cells, and only embedded in or located just beneath the cell's membrane. I _ b. are found oniy in bacterial cells, embedded in the cell's plasma membrane only. ' c. are thought to have evolved very early, because of their similar structure and function in a wide variety of modern organisms. . (1. probably evolved from adaptation of the citric acid cycle. _ e are not widespread in nature and were unimportant in the evolution of e . ores. Name .' ED Number“ 44. Succinate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of succinate to furnarate. The reaction is inhibited by malonic acid, which resembles succinate but cannot be acted upon by succinate dehydrogenase. Increasing the ratio of succinate to malonic acid reduces the inhibitory effectof malonic aCid. Based-on this information, winch of the following is correct? - ' ' _ ,a/S ccinate dehydrogenase is the enzyme, and filinarate is the substrate. . . Succinate dehydrogenase is the enzyme, and maionic acid is the substrate. clEuccinate is the substrate, and fumarate is the product. ’. Fumarate is the product, and malonic acid is a noncompetitive inhibitor. e. Malonic acid is the product, and fiimarate is a competitive inhibitor. ' 45. In vertebrate animals, the color brown fat tissue is due to abundant mitochondria. White fat tissue, on the other hand, is specialized for fat storage and contains relatively few I mitochondria. Brown fat cells have a specialized protein. that dissipates the proton—motive forceacross the mitochondrial membranes. Which of the foliowing might be the function of the brown fat tissue? ' flit increase the rate of oxidative phosphorylation from its few nutochondna Mi: allow the animals to regulate their metabolic rate _when it is especially hot c. to increase the production of ATP synthase I Id? to allow other membranes of the cell to perform mitochondrial-function _ e. to regulate temperahne by converting energy trons. NADH oxidation to heat 46. Data in the Table (right) were obtained mm from a study of the length of time spent in ——.———-—-.———wm___— each phase of the cell cycle by cells of Ben I 18 24 12 16 three eukaryotic organisms designated Dalia 100 0 O 0 Beta, Delta, and and Gamma. The best Gamma ' 18 48 14 20 conclusion concerning delta is that the ' - ' cells ' . ' _ a. contain no DNA. . d. are acmally in the G0 phase. 1'). contain no RNA. _ _ ' '. - _ e. divide in the G1 phase. . (3. contain only one chromosome ' that is very short. Answer each of the 3 following short answer questions. Your answer shnuld nOt exceed the boa: provided, lest you incur the wrath of the graders (and perhaps receive zero points). ' {CkL L1,: {El-:- I‘. .13) in) at be OW Name ED Number— 48. (4 pointSJUsing a series of arrows, draw the branched rnetabohc reaction pathway described by the. following statements, then answer the question at the end. L can form either M or N. - M can form 0. O can form either P or R. P can form ' R can fonn S. 1 '— O inhibits the reaction of L to form M. Q inhibits the'reaction of o to form P. S inhibits the reaction of O to form R. k P _ fl “:2 of” Ar L” ' \> ’3. _..—- .... ,. W . _ VJ . K EAR-‘1‘); KR Q N . 49. (5 points} In the pathway you have proposedj which of the following reactions would «'5 prevail if both Q and S were present in the cell in high concentrations? (Please }ust_ circle the answer; don’t use the Scantron sheets for this one). -. ' a. L —> M . d. O —-> P b. M -—-> O - e. R —> S c L —> NI I I) “ RX; I’- M. -~-~_I\\ 5.; a“; w 2} ifs-v \ If“? 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BISC220 - Exam 2 - Name 1D Number _ Second 50 minute...

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