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Unformatted text preview: 2/15/07, Ch. 3 class notes 1. The Barnet, Cole, & Miller (1997) experiment on the handout is important to know (question 14). This explains it pretty clearly in addition to what's in the xeroxed handout. The graph on p. 85 of the handout (described on p. 84) reads like the reverse of a suppression ratio because the y-axis is time—that is, if suppress licking more, then rat will take longer to reach criterion of drinking for 5 sec, and the corresponding column on graph will be taller. Cole et al. (1997) conditioned stimulus A+ (in one context) and stimulus B+ (in a different context) to predict US (shock) is coming. The X- was another auditory S; it predicted that no shock was coming on that trial. It essentially negated the predictive meaning of the A+ when it appeared with it on the same trial (A+X or the compound AX). So the X was a conditioned inhibitor , in this instance, leading animals to inhibit making their conditioned response (conditioned fear) to A by signaling that the shock would not be forthcoming on a trial when X was present. Although both A+ (flashing light) and B+ (an auditory stimulus) had predicted shock, only A+ was also paired with X- (another auditory S) , the conditioned inhibitor , during training; thus, 28 trials each of A+ and A+X- (56 trials in all) were interspersed during training). Basically, the experimenters asked whether the X- took on meaning (i.e., the shock isn't coming) independent of the CS+ with which it was originally paired, or was general as the conditioned inhibitor specific to the stimulus that it had originally been paired with. ANSWER: It took on a generalized meaning, independent of the particular CS+. ** A conditioned inhibitor that you're familiar with is the universal symbol of a red circle with a red diagonal across its interior; when this symbol is superimposed over a picture, it means that whatever is pictured is forbidden (e.g., when superimposed over a cigarette with smoke rising out of one end, it signals "no smoking"). You can see that its meaning is generalized too---it can be superimposed over a picture of any activity or object and still mean the same thing —"don't do it" or "forbidden"....
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- Spring '06
- Classical Conditioning, auditory stimulus