ch_6_Motivational_Basis_of_Leisure - Motivational Basis of...

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Unformatted text preview: Motivational Basis of Leisure Leisure Olson Chapter 6 Leisure Theory Leisure Helps us to know more about Helps how we and others are motivated in our leisure. motivated Over time – over a dozen Over different theories. No one leisure theory No adequately explains the value people place on leisure or the reasons underlying their leisure choices. leisure Stimulation Seeking Theory Seeking Stimulus Struggle (Desmond Morris): describes our need for stimulation – “object of the struggle = obtain the optimum amount of stimulation from the environment.” stimulation Stimulus must be perceived as novel, unique, Stimulus complex, and possesses information which leads to uncertainty. We often engage in activities because they stimulate us. activities Stimulation must be balanced Stimulation *-----------------------------------------------*-----------------------------------------------* Suboptimal Boredom Optimal Supraoptimal Most satisfactory Too much arousal Most desirable Anxiety Satisfaction Stress producing Physical Well being Rapid pulse rate Relatively free from disturbing effects of anxiety Gastrointestinal disturbances Sensation Seeking Theory Sensation What type of risks do you take? Zukerman’s research on risk taking Zukerman’s has centered around “sensation seeking’ as the presumed general trait underlying play and novelty seeking. underlying Theory: humans have a need for Theory: sensory stimulation. sensory He developed a Sensation Seeking He Scale which measures the extent to which an individual values and seeks external stimulation. Four subfactors of sensation seeking: of Sensation Seeking Scale Sensation Thrill Adventure Seeking: Physical activities involving speed, danger, Physical novelty, and defiance of gravity. novelty, Experience Seeking: Seeking novel experiences through travel, Seeking music, art, and spontaneous, nonconforming lifestyles with similarly inclined persons. similarly Disinhibition: The need to seek release in uninhibited social activities The with or without the aid of alcohol. with Boredom Susceptibility: an aversion to repetitive experience, routine an work, or predictable people with a reaction of restless discontent when unavoidably exposed to such experience. when Research Conclusions Research There exist high and low sensation seekers. High Sensation Seekers: High participate in studies involving hypnosis or sensory participate deprivation prefer sports generally viewed as dangerous drawn to gambling/tend to prefer poorer odds more inclined to travel Attracted to mental activities that produce vivid Attracted images, daydreams, or fantasies…consequently are more inclined toward drugs or alcohol. are Prefer adventure films and fictional writing. Strong correlations with a liberal philosophy. Low Sensation Seekers: Tend to avoid high sensation activities. Leisure Values & Needs Leisure Leisure values are personal assessments Leisure of the worth or utility of leisure. We have diverse values, thus we have different leisure motivations! different Leisure motivations Leisure Intellectual: expand interests, Intellectual: satisfy curiosity, expand knowledge knowledge Social: Be with others, interact Social: w/others, belonging w/others, Competence Mastery: challenge, Competence achievement, competition achievement, Stimulus Avoidance: relax Stimulus physically and/or mentally, relieve stress, escape stress, Our needs affect our motivations Our Abraham Maslow’s Abraham Hierarchy of Needs Needs Locus of Control Locus Externally directed people Externally fundamentally feel that most important things in their lives are controlled by forces outside of themselves…. Internally directed people feel that the Internally most important things in their lives are under their personal control. control. Perceived competence: Perceived demonstration of skills and abilities. abilities. Locus of Control Locus can change involves learned skills and behaviors • Example: Mike signed up for line dancing classes Example: despite what his friends think about the idea. He has developed assertiveness skills: signing up for the classes/not caring about what his friends think. the Self-concept and leisure Self-concept Self-perception affects leisure choices Self-fulfilling prophecy: “The picnic will be Self-fulfilling awful and I will burn the bbq meat!” awful or Flow Theory: Csikszentmihalyi Flow As an explanation for leisure satisfaction and behavior satisfaction Autotelic Activities: possessing Autotelic intrinsic reward potential & requiring a certain degree of self-directed concentration – leisure & enjoyment. leisure Exotelic activities: Primarily Exotelic extrinsic potential and external locus of control or externally directed concentration – work & materialistic. materialistic. Conclusion Conclusion When faced with boredom: engage in leisure When which is novel or complex and your (physical, mental, emotional) arousal will be elevated mental, When faced with anxiety: engage in leisure that When reduces complexity or novelty and your (physical, mental, emotional) arousal will be decreased. decreased. Continually seek an optimal level of arousal. ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2011 for the course HRTM 10 taught by Professor Phillytoney during the Spring '11 term at San Jose State University .

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