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Unformatted text preview: Motivational Basis of
Olson Chapter 6 Leisure Theory
Leisure Helps us to know more about
Helps how we and others are
motivated in our leisure.
motivated Over time – over a dozen
different theories. No one leisure theory
adequately explains the value
people place on leisure or the
reasons underlying their
Seeking Stimulus Struggle (Desmond Morris):
describes our need for stimulation – “object of
the struggle = obtain the optimum amount of
stimulation from the environment.”
Stimulus must be perceived as novel, unique,
complex, and possesses information which
leads to uncertainty. We often engage in
activities because they stimulate us.
activities Stimulation must be balanced
Stimulation *-----------------------------------------------*-----------------------------------------------* Suboptimal
Boredom Optimal Supraoptimal Most satisfactory Too much arousal Most desirable Anxiety Satisfaction Stress producing Physical Well being Rapid pulse rate Relatively free from
disturbing effects of
disturbances Sensation Seeking Theory
What type of risks do you take? Zukerman’s research on risk taking
has centered around “sensation
seeking’ as the presumed general trait
underlying play and novelty seeking.
underlying Theory: humans have a need for
sensory He developed a Sensation Seeking
Scale which measures the extent to
which an individual values and seeks
external stimulation. Four subfactors
of sensation seeking:
of Sensation Seeking Scale
Thrill Adventure Seeking: Physical activities involving speed, danger,
novelty, and defiance of gravity.
Experience Seeking: Seeking novel experiences through travel,
music, art, and spontaneous, nonconforming lifestyles with
similarly inclined persons.
Disinhibition: The need to seek release in uninhibited social activities
with or without the aid of alcohol.
Boredom Susceptibility: an aversion to repetitive experience, routine
work, or predictable people with a reaction of restless discontent
when unavoidably exposed to such experience.
when Research Conclusions
There exist high and low sensation seekers. High Sensation Seekers:
High participate in studies involving hypnosis or sensory
prefer sports generally viewed as dangerous
drawn to gambling/tend to prefer poorer odds
more inclined to travel
Attracted to mental activities that produce vivid
images, daydreams, or fantasies…consequently
are more inclined toward drugs or alcohol.
Prefer adventure films and fictional writing.
Strong correlations with a liberal philosophy. Low Sensation Seekers: Tend to avoid high sensation activities. Leisure Values & Needs
Leisure values are personal assessments
of the worth or utility of leisure. We
have diverse values, thus we have
different leisure motivations!
different Leisure motivations
Leisure Intellectual: expand interests,
satisfy curiosity, expand
Social: Be with others, interact
Competence Mastery: challenge,
Stimulus Avoidance: relax
physically and/or mentally, relieve
stress, Our needs affect our motivations
Needs Locus of Control
Externally directed people
fundamentally feel that most
important things in their lives are
controlled by forces outside of
Internally directed people feel that the
most important things in their
lives are under their personal
demonstration of skills and
abilities. Locus of Control
Locus can change
involves learned skills and behaviors
• Example: Mike signed up for line dancing classes
despite what his friends think about the idea. He
has developed assertiveness skills: signing up for
the classes/not caring about what his friends think.
the Self-concept and leisure
Self-concept Self-perception affects leisure choices Self-fulfilling prophecy: “The picnic will be
Self-fulfilling awful and I will burn the bbq meat!”
awful or Flow Theory: Csikszentmihalyi
As an explanation for leisure
satisfaction and behavior
satisfaction Autotelic Activities: possessing
intrinsic reward potential &
requiring a certain degree of
self-directed concentration –
leisure & enjoyment.
leisure Exotelic activities: Primarily
extrinsic potential and external
locus of control or externally
directed concentration – work &
When faced with boredom: engage in leisure
which is novel or complex and your (physical,
mental, emotional) arousal will be elevated
When faced with anxiety: engage in leisure that
reduces complexity or novelty and your
(physical, mental, emotional) arousal will be
Continually seek an optimal level of arousal. ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2011 for the course HRTM 10 taught by Professor Phillytoney during the Spring '11 term at San Jose State University .
- Spring '11