OLSON_Ch_7 - Chapter 7: Human Chapter 7: Human Development...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7: Human Chapter 7: Human Development & Leisure “Just because something occurs, “on the average” at a certain time in a person’s life does not guarantee that it will occur at that time in everyone’s life.” It is important to provide children with appropriate developmental experiences during critical periods. It is important for adults to continue to stimulate and challenge their own adult brains. Discovery Discovery In adults people most benefited when they select activities that are “diverting and unfamiliar”. This supports the position of making “discovery events” an important part of your life. When you are discovering, you may be helping keep your brain circuitry healthy. The Components of Human The Components of Human Development • • The most common way to examine development is from the perspective of the following four subdivisions: Physical, Cognitive, Personality, and Social. There should be understood a mutual interdependence of each of these areas. None of the areas can be considered independent of the others. Physical Physical The emphasis is on quantitative measures that indicate physical change. Through the physical sense we acquire the information necessary to function within the various contexts that our bodies carry us. Cognitive Cognitive Here the concern is with the various mental abilities that a person brings to bear in his/her attempt to solve problems. It specifically refers to learning, memory, reasoning, and creativity. It refers to the process of acquiring and applying information. Personality Personality The sum total of one’s beliefs, attributes, behaviors, and values. An individual’s emotional and behavioral tendency. Social Social Much of what we call personality is a reflection of the quality of one’s interactions with significant others. There is formal and informal learning that occurs when one is interacting. Zanden’s Summary of Play Zanden’s Summary of Play Contributions to Human Development Motor and sensory discoveries: they learn about Prepares children for life on their own terms; can the properties of things. experience themselves as active agents Anticipatory socialization: provides opportunities for rehearsing adult roles. Builds individual sense of identity; it allows them to get outside themselves and view themselves from other perspectives. Allows for reality and fantasy. enables children to come to terms with their fears – of villains, witches, ghosts, lions, dogs, etc . . . Through imaginary episodes children can harmlessly confront these creatures and perhaps even triumph over them. Leisure Activity and Leisure Activity and Physical Development What influence do leisure activities have on physical development? What would happen if you What would happen if you were deprived of activity? Study involving Iranian orphanages in the 60s: – Two orphanages were studied. – Children had no toys and were never put in a sitting position or placed on their stomachs. Once the child was able to sit on the floor – no toys, no play furniture, no play apparatus. – Due to being overworked, the staff was unable to handle the kids. What do you think was the result? The net result of this type of child rearing was severe motor retardation. Clearly demonstrates the developmental role of physical play in child development. As a control a third orphanage was studied. The children were frequently handled, toys were available, and were given plenty of play opportunities. The children showed normal motor development. Gender Differences Gender Differences Studies suggest that certain aspect of play behavior may be predicted solely based on gender. Summary of differences generally Summary of differences generally observed in play of young boys and girls 1. 2. 3. Boys tend to be more boisterous and aggressive. Boys play involves struggles for dominance. Boys tend to be more competitive than girls. 4. Girls tend to avoid conflict by 4. Girls tend to avoid conflict by establishing rules, etc. 5. Girls tend to be more empathetic in their play. 6. Girls are less likely to avoid “tomboyish behavior” than boys are to avoid “sissy behavior.” Biology or Socialization? Biology or Socialization? ...
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