Test One

Test One - Evolution Main Ideas Change of genetic...

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Evolution Main Ideas: Change of genetic composition over a population Descent of modern organisms with modification from pre-existing organisms Evolutionary Adaptation: Accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms ability to survive in specific environments Pre- Darwinian Era Lamarck Inheritance of acquired characteristics Bodies of living organisms are modified through the use or disuse of parts Modifications inherited by offspring This idea was Wrong Giraffe stretching example Modern Ideas Darwin and Wallace developed theory independently Darwin – Voyage of the Beagle Wallace – Naturalist in Indonesia Natural Selection Unequal survival and reproduction of organisms due to environmental forces resulting in preservation of favorable adaptations
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Process selects from what is available in the gene pool New characteristics are not created on demand Mechanism Behind Natural Selection Graph Artificial Selection Selective breeding of organisms to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits Analogous to natural selection Fossil Record Shows change in organisms through time Change in types of organisms Past organisms differ from present day organisms Many species have become extinct Fossil record not only provide evidence of small-scale changes but of origin of major groups For example, the cataceans Homologous and Analogous Structures Homologous Structures of other attributes in different species that resemble each other because of common ancestry (human cat whale bat) Vertebrate embryos All vertebrates share similar developmental genes Differences arise by same genes being switched on or off at varying times during development (pharyngeal pouches, post-anal tail) Biochemisty and molecular biology
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DNA is universal genetic material All life forms use approximately the same 20 amino acids to make proteins All use ATP as the primary form of cellular energy All use RNA and ribosomes to make protein Analogous Structures that are similar in function but not in structure and developmental and evolutionary origin Trees Vs. Scala Naturae (ladder of nature pg453) Evolution not about climbing “ladder of nature” from lower to higher Evolution is a “bush” with lineages branching from one another Biogeography Geographic distribution of species Closely related species tend to be found in the same region Convergent evolution Similarity between two organisms, structures, or molecules due to independent evolution along similar lines rather than descent from a common ancestor. The Evolution of Populations (CH23)
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This note was uploaded on 09/12/2011 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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Test One - Evolution Main Ideas Change of genetic...

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