he relationship between race and crime in the United States has been a topic of public controversy a

He relationship between race and crime in the United States has been a topic of public controversy a

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he relationship between race and crime in the United States has been a topic of public controversy and scholarly debate for more than a century. [1] Since the 1980s, the debate has centered around the causes of and contributing factors to the disproportional representation of racial minorities (particularly African Americans , hence "Black crime") at all stages of the criminal justice system, including arrests, prosecutions and incarcerations. [2] Many theories of causation have been proposed, most of which assume predominantly social and/or environmental causes; while a few others argue for a reconsideration of the role of biology. [3] Contents [ hide ] 1 Racial demographics of the US 2 Crime rate statistics o 2.1 Data gathering methods 2.1.1 Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) 2.1.2 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) 2.1.3 Comparison of UCR and NCVS data 2.1.4 Classification of Hispanics o 2.2 Current crime rate statistics 2.2.1 Arrests 2.2.2 Murder 2.2.3 Victim Survey 2.2.4 Racially motivated hate crime 2.2.5 Hispanics 2.2.6 Crime trends o 2.3 Youth gangs o 2.4 Prison data o 2.5 Racial homogeneity of geographic areas o 2.6 Racial composition of geographic areas o 2.7 Other 3 Theories of causation o 3.1 School of thought o 3.2 Modern theories of causation 3.2.1 Conflict theory 3.2.2 Strain (anomie) theory
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3.2.3 Social disorganization theory 3.2.4 Macrostructural opportunity theory 3.2.5 Social control theory 3.2.6 Subculture of violence theory 3.2.7 Police discrimination 3.2.8 Incarceration 3.2.9 IQ theory 3.2.10 Hormonal theory 3.2.11 r/K theory 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links [ edit ] Racial demographics of the US Further information: Race and ethnicity in the United States Census The racial composition of the US population as of 2008 was 79.79% White American (65.60% non-Hispanic and 14.19% Hispanic ), 12.84% African American (12.22% non-Hispanic and 0.62% Hispanic ), 4.45% Asian American (4.35% non-Hispanic and 0.10% Hispanic), 1.01% American Indian or Alaska Native (0.76% non-Hispanic and 0.25% Hispanic), 0.18% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander American (0.14% non-Hispanic and 0.04% Hispanic), and 1.69% Multiracial American (1.64% non-Hispanic and 0.05% Hispanic). 15.25% of the total US population identified their ethnicity as Hispanic . [4] [ edit ] Crime rate statistics Prisoners of various racial and ethnic backgrounds in the exercise yard of a US federal prison . Further information: Crime statistics
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Historically, crime statistics have played a central role in the discussion of the relationship between race and crime in the United States. [5]
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He relationship between race and crime in the United States has been a topic of public controversy a

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