prejudice - Prejudice From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

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Prejudice From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about a discrimination concept. For legal procedure, see Prejudice (law) . Four-way 18th-century English prejudice Part of a series of articles on Discrimination General forms [ show ] General Specific forms [ show ] Social [ show ] Manifestations [ show ] Policies
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[ show ] Other forms [ show ] Related topics Discrimination portal This box: view · talk · edit A prejudice is a prejudgment, an assumption made about someone or something before having adequate knowledge to be able to do so with guaranteed accuracy. The word prejudice is most commonly used to refer to preconceived judgments toward people or a person because of race , social class , gender , ethnicity , homelessness , age , disability , obesity , religion , sexual orientation , or other personal characteristics. It also means beliefs without knowledge of the facts [1] and may include "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence." [2] Contents [ hide ] 1 Historical approaches 2 Contemporary theories and empirical findings o 3.1 Racism o 3.2 Sexism o 3.3 Nationalism o 3.4 Classism o 3.5 Sexual orientation o 3.6 Religious affiliation 4 See also 5 References Historical approaches The first psychological research conducted on prejudice occurred in the 1920s. This research was done to attempt to prove white supremacy . One article from 1925 reviewing 73 studies on race concluded that the “studies take all together seem to indicate the mental superiority of the white race”. [3] This research among others led many psychologists to view prejudice as a natural response to inferior races.
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In the 1930s and 1940s, this perspective began to change due to the increasing concern about anti-Semitism . Theorists of this time viewed prejudice as pathological and looked for personality syndromes linked with racism. Theorist Theodor Adorno believed prejudice stemmed from an authoritarian personality. Adorno described authoritarians as “rigid thinkers who obeyed authority, saw the world as black and white, and enforced strict adherence to social rules and hierarchies”. [4] Adorno believed people with authoritarian personalities were the most likely to be prejudiced against groups of lower status. In 1954, Gordon Allport linked prejudice and categorical thinking. Allport claims prejudice is in part a normal process for humans. According to him, “The human mind must think with the aid of categories…Once formed, categories are the basis for normal prejudgment. We cannot possibly avoid this process. Orderly living depends upon it”. [5] In the 1970s, research began to show that much of prejudice is based not on negative feelings towards other groups but favoritism towards one’s own groups. According to Marilyn Brewer, prejudice “may develop not because outgroups are hated, but because positive emotions such as admiration, sympathy, and trust are reserved for the ingroup”. [6]
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prejudice - Prejudice From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

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