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Hematologic Disorders n Blood Dyscrasias

Hematologic Disorders n Blood Dyscrasias - Notes...

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Notes Hematologic Disorders / Blood Dyscrasias   I.   Pediatric Differences in hematologic system from adult: 1.  Life span of RBC’s in neonate is shortened.  Adult is 120 days,       neonate is 100 days.   2.  By 2 months of age, erythropoiesis increases, leading to increased       reticulocytes in the blood and a rise in hemoglobin. 3.  In infants, the long bones of the body are filled with red bone marrow       actively producing RBC’s.  In early childhood, yellow marrow begins to       replace this in the long bones, so blood production is then carried out       mainly in the ribs, sternum, scapula, vertebrae, pelvis, and skull.   4.  The number of RBC’s in the body varies according to age. At birth, the       infant has approximately 5 million RBC’s per cc of blood.  This       concentration diminishes – by 3-4 months of age the RBC count is 4.1       million /cc of blood.  It slowly increases until adolescence when it       reaches adult values of about 4.9 million /cc. of blood.   5.  The infant has a higher average hemoglobin (17-18 g) and hematocrit       (45-50%) than the adult.       II. Iron deficiency anemia: 1. The cause of iron-deficiency anemia is poor diets, blood loss as in menstrual periods, increased  internal demands for blood production,   2. Diagnostic tests confirm iron-deficiency anemia include hemoglobin and hematocrit, RBC count,  serum iron, reticulocytes.   3. The two main treatments are: a. Oral iron supplements – Ferrous sulfate  b. Dietary teaching – patient teaching regarding foods high in iron.   III.  Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)/ Sickle Cell Anemia
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  Definition: Genetic term that refers to a group of genetic disorders characterized by the production of an  elongated, crescent shaped erythrocyte, or abnormal form of hemoglobin, designated as sickle 
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