FacultyLearningGuideforHypertension - 1 ,orthe 2...

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Learning Guide for Hypertension 1. What is the definition of hypertension?   Systolic equal to or greater than 140 or diastolic equal to or greater than 90, or the  current use of hypertensive medication. 2. What is the equation of arterial blood pressure?   Arterial blood pressure = cardiac output + systemic vascular resistance. 3. What factors determine cardiac output?   Cardiac: heart rate, sympathetic nervous system, vagus nerve, norepinepherine.  Renal: rennin-angiotensen, aldosterone, ADH, atrial natriuretic peptides. 4. What factors influence system vascular resistance?    A adrenergic receptors (vasoconstriction) beta adrenergic receptors (vasodilation).  Humeral, Angiotension and norepinepherine. 5. What are the stages of hypertension? Stage 1 Systolic equal to or greater than 140 or diastolic equal to or greater than  90 Stage 2 Systolic equal to or greater than 160 or diastolic equal to or greater than  100 6. What is isolated systolic hypertension:    stage 1 values caused by atherosclerosis in those above age 55. 7. What is pseudohypertension? Occurs with advanced arteriosclerosis .    Sclerotic arteries do not collapse when the cuff is deflated. Osler’s sign when a  palpable artery after the blood pressure cuff is fully inflated is major sign. 8. What is the etiology of primary hypertension?  Exact cause is unknown.   9. What is the etiology of secondary hypertension?  There is a specific cause such as coarctation of the aorta. 10. Complete the following table about the risk factors for hypertension: (You will have to  think through this.  Answers are not in the book.) Factor Rationale 1
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Age SBP increases with age. Athero and arteriosclerosis Alcohol Hepatic hypertension
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FacultyLearningGuideforHypertension - 1 ,orthe 2...

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