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Module 5_Respiratory - Lewis physiology of respiratory...

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Lewis: physiology of respiratory tract pp. 512-520 diagnostic studies pp. 525-531 Upper respiratory pp. 533-541 Obstructive sleep apnea 542-543 Acute bronchitis & Pneumonia pp.561-569 lung abcess pg. 576 atelectasis & pleural effusion(pg587 Table 28-4) & pleurisy pp. 595-597 case study pp. 604-605 chest physiotherapy pp. 646-648 bronchiectasis pp. 659-661 Upper Respiratory 1. Examine the etiology and pathophysiology and risk factors for the following upper respiratory disorders: o deviated septum :Etiology : is a deflection of the normally straight nasal septum that is most commonly caused by trauma to the nose or congenital disproportion. Pathophys : septum is bent to one side, altering air passage, Risks : obstruction to nasal breathing, nasal edema, dryness of nasal mucosa w/crusting & bleeding,, blocked sinus drainage resulting in sinusitis/ infection. o nasal trauma : Etiology : 40% caused by substantial blow to middle of face, Pathophys : unilateral fx may not show deformity, bilat fractures have flatten look, may also present with “raccoon eyes” – ecchymosis in both eyes. Risk : airway obstruction, epistaxis, meningeal tears, septal hematoma, cosmetic deformity, CSF leak if complicated fx, hematoma can cause infection o epistaxis : (nosebleed) Etiology : caused by trauma, foreign bodies, topical corticosteroid use, nasal spray abuse, street drug use, anatomic malformation allergic rhinitis, or tumors. Any condition that prolongs bleeding time or alters platelet counts. Pathophys : the relatively common occurrence of hemorrhage from the nose. There are two types: anterior (the most common), and posterior (less common, more likely to require medical attention). Occurs in children <10 yo and adults >50 yo Risk : if nasal packing is required for posterior bleeds, there is a risk for altered respiratory status, hypoventilation, hypoxemia, aspiration, infection from packing, packing is also very painful.. o Acute rhinitis or common cold (viral upper respiratory infection) : Etiology : caused by an adenovirus that invades the upper respiratory tract and often accompanies an acute respiratory infection (URI). Most prevalent infectious disease and is spread by airborne droplet sprays emitted by the infected person while breathing, talking, sneezing, coughing or direct hand contact. This virus can survive on inanimate objects for up to 3 days. Pathophys : Fatigue,
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physical & emotional stress, compromised immune status may increase susceptibility. S/Sx:
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