physiology of respiratory tract pp. 512-520
diagnostic studies pp. 525-531
Upper respiratory pp. 533-541
Obstructive sleep apnea 542-543
Acute bronchitis & Pneumonia pp.561-569
lung abcess pg. 576
atelectasis & pleural effusion(pg587 Table 28-4) & pleurisy pp. 595-597
case study pp. 604-605
chest physiotherapy pp. 646-648
bronchiectasis pp. 659-661
Examine the etiology and pathophysiology and risk factors for the following upper respiratory
: is a deflection of the normally straight nasal septum that is most
commonly caused by trauma to the nose or congenital disproportion. Pathophys
: septum is
bent to one side, altering air passage, Risks
: obstruction to nasal breathing, nasal edema,
: 40% caused by substantial blow to middle of face, Pathophys
unilateral fx may not show deformity, bilat fractures have flatten look, may also present with
“raccoon eyes” – ecchymosis in both eyes.
: airway obstruction, epistaxis, meningeal
tears, septal hematoma, cosmetic deformity, CSF leak if complicated fx, hematoma can cause
: (nosebleed) Etiology
: caused by trauma, foreign bodies, topical corticosteroid use,
nasal spray abuse, street drug use, anatomic malformation allergic rhinitis, or tumors. Any
condition that prolongs bleeding time or alters platelet counts.
: the relatively
common occurrence of hemorrhage from the nose. There are two types: anterior (the most
common), and posterior (less common, more likely to require medical attention).
children <10 yo and adults >50 yo
: if nasal packing is required for posterior bleeds,
there is a risk for altered respiratory status, hypoventilation, hypoxemia, aspiration, infection
from packing, packing is also very painful.
Acute rhinitis or common cold (viral upper respiratory infection)
: caused by an
adenovirus that invades the upper respiratory tract and often accompanies an acute respiratory
infection (URI). Most prevalent infectious disease and is spread by airborne droplet sprays
emitted by the infected person while breathing, talking, sneezing, coughing or direct hand
contact. This virus can survive on inanimate objects for up to 3 days.