Module 9_Nutrition - Module9:Nutrition Restoring Nutrition...

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Module 9:    Nutrition   Restoring Nutrition 1.    Define: malnutrition, catabolism, negative nitrogen balance.   o malnutrition   a disorder characterized by insufficient or excessive nourishment of body tissue  caused by improper diet or impaired absorption or metabolism of nutrients  o catabolism   production of glucose from the breakdown of muscle and lean body mass  o negative nitrogen balance   A condition in which nitrogen output exceeds nitrogen intake, resulting in the  body’s need to draw on its own stores of protein for energy; may be caused by  dietary imbalances, illness, infection, anxiety, or stress.  2.    Examine the evidence of deficiency for each of the vitamins and minerals in table 25-1.   o See Table 25-1, pg 586   3.    Examine factors affecting nutritional status across the lifespan. pg 587 - 588   o Infants and Children   low birth weight children are at risk for undernutrition and need close monitoring  infants and children may need extra nourishment if they experience  hypermetabolism or decreased growth  trauma, burns, and failure to thrive all require special nurtritional support  overweight children ingest inadequate amounts of vitamins, minerals, and  protein, while taking in higher than recommended levels of fat, sugar, and overall  calories  o Adolescents   eating disorders tend to occur during adolescence  they gain 20% of adult height and 50% of adult weight at this time  obesity and overweight status in adolescents follows the pattern found in children  adds tot he risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular  disease later in life  o Older Adults   aging causes an increased proportion of connective tissue and a loss of  functioning cells  some nutritional deficits may be linked to aging, for example: deficiencies of  calcium, iron, zinc, thiamine, Vit b12, and folate are common in older adults and  may be secondary to problems with chewing, swallowing, and digesting foods 
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many older adults take multiple prescriptions and over-the-counter drugs,  increasing the risk of potentially dangerous drug interactions  4.    Identify problems in ingestion, digestion, absorption, and metabolism. (pg 588 - 589)   o Ingestion   factors that affect food ingestion are those that influence appetite and disorders  of the mouth and esophagus and that affect swallowing  anorexia - a reduced desire for food, leading to decreased intake and  malnutrition if prolonged  deglutition - swallowing  dysphagia - difficulty swallowing  o Digestion and Absorption   certain diseases that alter the digestive process and impair food absorption, a 
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course RNSG 1105 taught by Professor Cooper during the Spring '11 term at Austin Community College.

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Module 9_Nutrition - Module9:Nutrition Restoring Nutrition...

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