Promoting Healthy Nutrition
Define: nutrition, nutrients, nutritional status, energy, calorie, BMR.
Food or Diet. Science of food and nutrients and of the processes by which an
organism ingests them and uses them for energy to grow, maintain function, and renew itself.
– Biochemical substance used by the body for growth, maintenance, and repair.
For optimal health, the diet must be sufficient in a variety of nutrients.
– The power that can be translated into motion, can overcome resistance, or can
effect physical change.
– Condition of the body resulting from use of available essential nutrients.
– A measure of the potential energy of the carb, protein, and fat content of food.
- Basal Metabolic Rate. The amount of energy needed to maintain essential body
functions expressed as calories per hour per square meter of body surface.
Describe the function of the GI system as related to the nutrition process: ingestion, digestion,
absorption, and metabolism.
- Food enters the body.
– Mechanical/Chemical process by which the body changes food into elemental
nutrients for absorption.
Mouth – Chews food and mixes it with saliva.
Salivary Glands – Produces enzymes to begin the breakdown of carbs.
Epiglottis – Closes when food is swallowed to prevent aspiration.
Esophagus – Transports bolus from mouth to stomach.
Lower Esophageal sphincter – Protects the esophagus from regurgitation of hydrochloric
Stomach – Mixes food with hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and lipase to form chime.
Pyloric Sphincter – Prevents backflow of alkaline intestinal contents into stomach.
Liver – Secretes bile for emulsification of fat.
Gallbladder – Stores and releases bile when fat is present in food.
Bile Duct – Transports bile to duodenum.
Pancreas – Produces trypson, chymotrypson, amylase, and lipase for digestion of carbs,
fats and proteins.
Pancreatic Duct – Collects pancreatic enzymes and transports them to duodenum.
Absorption – (Intestinal Lining)
The passage of the end products of carb, protein ad gat
digestion, as well as many vitamin and mineral molecules, through the intestinal wall into the
bloodstream for distribution throughout the body. Takes place through diffusion or active