jaba-43-01-0089 - JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS...

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USE OF SOUNDING OUT TO IMPROVE SPELLING IN YOUNG CHILDREN T RACIE B. M ANN ,D ON B USHELL J R ., AND E DWARD K. M ORRIS UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS We examined the effects of teaching 5 typically developing elementary students to sound out their spelling words while writing them using the cover-copy-compare (CCC) method to practice spelling. Each student’s posttest performance following practice with sounding out was compared to that student’s posttest performance following practice with no sounding out. For every student, posttest accuracy was higher following practice with sounding out, indicating that it is an effective and easily implemented strategy to improve spelling instruction. Key words: cover-copy-compare method, sounding out, spelling _______________________________________________________________________________ Most students are taught to spell using a traditional assign-and-test procedure. With this method, students are assigned words on Mondays, practice them throughout the week (e.g., writing rehearsals, writing words in sentences and stories), and are tested on Fridays. Even when perfectly implemented, these pro- cedures are not effective for many students for Fry, 1995). First, they may not teach spelling at all, but instead force students to memorize a series of word lists, which does not prepare them to become competent spellers, readers, this approach often overlooks important com- ponents of effective instruction, including individualization, by assigning the same words to all students, and content relevance, by assigning arbitrary words instead of words that may appear in their lessons and daily life (Scott, 2000). Traditional spelling instruction also fails to provide sufficient time and practice on words McLaughlin, 1990), may not include an error- correction procedure, and does not allow immediate or frequent reinforcement. A method that combines effective spelling practice with error correction is the cover-copy- compare method (CCC; McGuigan, 1975). Using this method, students look at the word and copy it, cover the word and write it from memory, and then uncover the word to evaluate their accuracy. Several researchers have used this method to improve spelling in young children with and without disabilities and have found it to be more effective than the traditional Belfiore, 2006). The CCC method might be enhanced, however, if teachers took advantage of reading skills already in their students’ repertoires. Students who are already good readers and who have strong phonetic skills might improve their spelling by saying the sound of each letter as they write it. For instance, students who can sound out c-a-t , but cannot spell cat on hearing it, may be able to improve their accuracy by saying each sound as they spell it. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course PHY 205 taught by Professor Barlly during the Spring '11 term at University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

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jaba-43-01-0089 - JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS...

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