Ch1Intro

Ch1Intro - Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. What is Behavior? •...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. What is Behavior? • Anything a person says or does Any muscular, glandular, or electrical activity of an organism. What are products (outcomes) of behavior? • • • Getting an “A” in this class Weight loss Being Happy Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. Overt Behaviors Behaviors • Actions that can be observed and recorded by someone. Covert Behavior • Private internal activities that can not readily be observed by anyone else. Occurring within one’s skin • Requiring special instruments for observation Imagining Self­talk Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. Dimensions of Behavior • Characteristics of behavior that can be measured. Duration – length of time the behavior lasts Frequency – Number of times a behavior occurs Rate ­ Number of instances a behavior occurs in a given time period Intensity (force) – Amount of physical effort or energy required to engage in (emit) the behavior Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. When speaking of behavior we speak in observable terms, not general summary terms. • Honest • Angry • We say, “He hit the desk with his hand.” • We do not say, “He was angry.” or “He hit the desk because he was angry.” Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. When speaking of behavior issues, speak in terms of behavioral deficits or behavioral excesses • This avoids labels and is more descriptive of the actual issue at hand Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. Behavior Modification (Applied Behavior Analysis) • So we Define issues in terms of behavior that can be measured in some way, using changes in the behavior being measured as the best indicator of helping the problem (success in treatment) Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. Behavior Modification (Applied Behavior Analysis) • treatment procedures and techniques used are ways of altering an individual’s current environment (people, objects, events). People objects and events in an individuals immediate environment are referred to as stimuli Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. Behavior Modification (Applied Behavior Analysis) • Its methods and rationales can be described precisely Allows for a science of behavior, facilitating replication of treatments for similar behavioral excesses or deficits. Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. Behavior Modification (Applied Behavior Analysis) • Techniques of behavior modification are often applied by individuals in everyday life. Precise description of rationales and methods enables behavior modification to be implemented by parents, teachers, and individuals wishing to modify their own behavior Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. Behavior Modification (Applied Behavior Analysis) • Techniques stem from basic and applied research in the science of learning • Emphasizes scientific demonstration that a particular intervention was responsible for a particular behavior change Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. Behavior Assessment • Involves the collection and analysis of information and data in order to: Identify and describe the target behavior. Identify possible causes (functions) of the behavior Guide the selection of an appropriate behavioral treatment Evaluate treatment outcome • Target Behavior Behavior to be improved (increased or decreased) • Operationally defined Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. Misconceptions about Behavior Modification (Applied Behavior Analysis) Behavior Modification is outdated Rewards (reinforcement) are bribery Involves drugs, psychosurgery, and or electro convulsive therapy (ECT) Only changes symptoms, does not get at the underlying problem Introduction Ch. 1 Ch. Misconceptions about Behavior Modification (Applied Behavior Analysis) Can be applied to simple problems (toilet training, overcoming fears), but is not applicable for changing complex problems (fear or depression) Behavior modifiers are cold and unfeeling, without empathy Deal with observable behavior only, not thoughts and feelings ...
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