Ch3 - Ch.3 Ch.3 Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch.3 Ch.3 Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Positive Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Operant Behavior Behaviors that operate on the environment to Behaviors generate consequences, and are in turn influenced by those consequences influenced Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Consequences that Increase Behaviors Positive Reinforcer An event, when presented immediately following a An behavior, causes the behavior to increase in frequency frequency Positive Reinforcement If in a given situation, somebody does something that If is followed immediately by a positive reinforcer, then that person is more likely to do the same thing again when he or she encounters a similar situation when Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Consequences that Increase Behaviors Negative Reinforcer Negative Reinforcement Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Consequences that Decrease Behaviors Positive Punisher Negative Punisher Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Factors Positive Reinforcement Positive 1. Selecting the behavior to be increased Specifically identify the behavior to be Specifically increased increased • Operationally define the behavior Define the behavior in observable terms • Example: Aggression- could be operationally defined Example: Aggression could as contacting another individual with a closed fist as Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Factors Reinforcement Reinforcement 2. Choosing Reinforcers/Types of stimuli 2. Consumable • Food and drink Activity • Opportunities to watch or look at something Manipulative • Opportunities to play or interact with something Possessional • Opportunities to have something temporarily Social Social • Attention from another individual. Affection, Praise, hugs Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Factors Reinforcement Reinforcement 2. Choosing Reinforcers (cont.) What’s reinforcing for one individual may not act as a What’s reinforcer for another. How do you know what the individual likes? • Reinforcer surveys (questionnaires) • Observe what the individual likes Premack Principle • Let the individual Choose Preference assessments • Paired choice • MSWO Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Factors Reinforcement Reinforcement 2. Choosing Reinforcers (cont.) How do you know if what they like is a reinforcer • Reinforcer assessment Choose a behavior occurring occasionally, that is not obviously Choose followed by a reinforcer. Observe and record the frequency of occurrence without Observe reinforcement (baseline). reinforcement Then follow occurrences of the behavior with the stimulus to be Then tested tested Does frequency of occurrence increase Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Factors Positive Reinforcement Positive 3. Motivating Operations (MOs) Temporarily alter the effectiveness of a Temporarily stimulus as a reinforcer and therefore alters the frequency of behavior reinforced by said stimulus stimulus Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Factors Positive Reinforcement Positive Unconditioned Motivating Operations Deprivation (establishing operation) • Time which an individual does not experience the Time reinforcer reinforcer Satiation (abolishing operation) Experiencing a reinforcer to such an extent that it Experiencing is no longer reinforcing is We will discus conditioned MOs in Ch 19 Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Factors Positive Reinforcement Positive 4. Reinforcer Size The magnitude or amount of the reinforcer The should be sufficient enough to strengthen behavior, but small enough to avoid satiation behavior, More in ch. 6 Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Factors Positive Reinforcement Positive 5. Instructions: Make Use of Rules Instructions- specific rules or guidelines that indicate that specific behaviors will pay off in particular situations. particular • Rules state an ‘if-then’ relationship; a contingency. Rules Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Factors Positive Reinforcement Positive 6. Reinforcer Immediacy Reinforcement is most effective when Reinforcement following a behavior within 3-5 seconds following • As the amount of time between the occurrence of As the behavior and the delivery of the reinforcer increases, the reinforcement effect decreases. After 30s little if any reinforcement occurs without mediation. mediation. Fernando’s tardiness example Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Factors Positive Reinforcement Positive 7. Contingent vs Noncontingent 7. Reinforcement Reinforcement Contingent reinforcement is best for Contingent increasing desirable behavior. Noncontingent reinforcement can result in adventitious reinforcement and the strengthening of superstitious behaviors. superstitious Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Factors Positive Reinforcement Positive 8. Weaning the student from the program 8. and changing to natural reinforcers. and Natural Reinforcers- unprogrammed unprogrammed reinforcers that occur in the normal course of everyday living in the natural environment. (naturally occurring contingencies) (naturally Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement Often Guidelines for the Effective Application of Guidelines Positive reinforcement Positive Reinforcers should be readily available Should be able to be presented immediately Should Should be able to be used repeatedly without Should satiation satiation Should not take a long time to consume • Provide physical contact and praise simultaneously • Try to fade out the tangible reinforcer to social praise only Try and look for other natural reinforcers and • Do follow-up observations to verify maintenance ...
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