Ch4 - Ch 4 Ch 4 Developing and Maintaining Behavior with...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 4 Ch 4 Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Developing and Maintaining Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers Unconditioned (primary) Reinforcers Stimuli that are reinforcing without prior conditioning Food, Water, Sex, warmth Developing and Maintaining Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers Conditioned Reinforcers (secondary) Stimuli which become reinforcers through pairings (associations) with stimuli which are already reinforcers Praise, Pictures of loved ones, books, TV programs, cloths Developing and Maintaining Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers Tokens Conditioned reinforcers which can be accumulated and exchanged at a later time for unconditioned reinforcers Token System A program where tokens (points) can be earned and exchanged later for back­ups Developing and Maintaining Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers Back­Up Reinforcers The unconditioned reinforcer which condition a secondary (conditioned) reinforcer. Sea world example: Fish are back­ups for the clicker sound durring training Developing and Maintaining Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement 1. The strength of the back­up reinforcer The stronger the back­up (unconditioned reinforcer) the more effective the tokens (conditioned reinforcer) Developing and Maintaining Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement 2. The Variety of back­up reinforcers Simple conditioned reinforcer Conditioned to 1 back­up Ice­cream man and bells Generalized conditioned reinforcer Token (conditioned reinforcer) has been associated with several back­ups Money Developing and Maintaining Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement 3. The schedule of pairing with the back­ up reinforcer Conditioned reinforcement is more effective if a back­up reinforcer does not follow each occurrence of the conditioned reinforcer Developing and Maintaining Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement 4. Extinction of Conditioned Reinforcers No longer providing back­up reinforcement for the conditioned reinforcer Conditioned reinforcers must occasionally be paired with the back­up to maintain it efficacy as a reinforcer Developing and Maintaining Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers Guidelines for Effective Use Conditioned reinforcers should be easily administered Use a conditioned reinforcer that the individual will encounter in the natural environment (allowing for easy transition to natural contingencies) In early stages the back­up should be presented as quickly as possible after the presentation of the conditioned reinforcer. Then gradually increase the delay (requirement) Developing and Maintaining Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers Guidelines for Effective Use Use generalized conditioned reinforcers whenever possible When dealing with groups, avoid destructive competition Make sure everyone contacts reinforcement (earns conditioned reinforcers) Follow same guidelines for positive reinforcement ...
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