Ch6 - Ch 6 Ch Developing Behavioral Developing Persistence...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 6 Ch Developing Behavioral Developing Persistence Through the use of Intermittent Reinforcement Reinforcement Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Some Definitions Intermittent reinforcement • The maintenance of a behavior by reinforcing it The only occasionally (intermittently) rather than every time it occurs. time Schedules of reinforcement • Rules specifying which occurrences of the Rules behavior will be reinforced behavior Continuous reinforcement • Reinforcing every occurrence of the behavior Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Some Definitions (cont) Extinction • Opposite of continuous reinforcement Intermittent reinforcement schedule • Any rule specifying a procedure for occasionally Any reinforcing a behavior reinforcing Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Some Definitions (cont) Acquisition phase • When a behavior is being learned Use continuous reinforcement Maintenance phase • After a behavior has been well learned Use intermittent reinforcement Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Some Definitions (cont) Several advantages to intermittent schedules • More trials to satiation • Takes longer to extinguish • Certain Intermittent schedules produce more Certain consistent behavior consistent • Behaviors reinforced intermittently are more likely Behaviors to persist after transferred to reinforcers in the natural environment natural Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Ratio schedules Fixed Ratio (FR) schedules • the behavior has to occur a set number of times for the reinforcement to occur reinforcement • FR schedules, when introduced gradually, produce FR a high rate of behavior high • ratio strain ratio If you increase the requirement too quickly or too much If the behavior will stop. • FR schedules are resistant to extinction Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Ratio schedules (cont) Variable Ratio (VR) schedule • The number of responses required to produce The reinforcement changes unpredictably from one reinforcement to the next. reinforcement • Responses required varies around a mean number Responses of responses of This number is specified the designation of the VR This schedule (VR10) schedule • Salesman making a sale one in every ten house. Salesman Not every ten houses is a sale but on average its one in ten one Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Ratio schedules (cont) Variable Ratio (VR) schedule • • • • Produce high steady rate of responding Produce Ratio strain does not occur as readily Higher resistance to extinction than FR Some good examples of VR schedules Slot machines Asking people out on dates Fishing Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Simple Interval Schedules Instead of number of responses before Instead reinforcement occurs like in FR it is the amount of time since the last response which determines if the next response will be reinforced reinforced Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Simple Interval Schedules (cont) Fixed Interval (FI) • The first response after a fixed period of time following the The first previous reinforcement is reinforced Responses occurring prior to the amount of time have no effect Responses on reinforcement on Period of time indicates the schedule length (FI40s) Variable Interval (VI) • Like an FI but the interval length changes unpredictably from Like one interval to the next one Amount of time required varies around a mean time • This time is designates the schedule (VI40s) Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Interval schedules with limited hold Limited hold • a deadline for meeting the response requirement deadline for a schedule of reinforcement for • Within an interval schedule, the response must Within occur within a set period of time after it becomes available to be reinforced available Catching a bus The buses usually run on a time schedule (every 20 min) • But will only wait about 30 sec • This would be a FI20min/LH30sec This Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Duration Schedules The behavior must occur consistently for a The period of time. period • If the amount of time is set, it’s a Fixed Duration If (FD) schedule (FD) • If the amount of time changes unpredictably from If reinforcement to reinforcement around a mean value, it is a Variable Duration (VD) Schedule value, The interval length is the designation for the schedule The (FD30Sec) • Eye contact programs are reinforced on duration Eye schedules schedules Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Concurrent schedules of reinforcement Herrnstein's Matching law • The response rate or the time devoted to an The activity in a concurrent schedule is proportional to the rate of reinforcement of that activity relative to the rates of reinforcement on the other concurrent activities. activities. Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Concurrent schedules of reinforcement Concurrent • Some factors other than rate of reinforcement Some affecting our choice of response in a concurrent schedule situation schedule Types of schedules operating concurrently Immediacy of reinforcement Magnitude of reinforcement Response effort involved in the different options Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Reinforcement Intermittent 1. Choose a schedule that is appropriate to the Choose behavior you wish to strengthen and maintain maintain • 2. Fixed or varied duration schedule for teaching Fixed eye contact eye Choose a schedule that is convenient to Choose administer administer • A ratio schedule is often not convenient because ratio you must count each response you Developing behavioral persistence through the use of intermittent reinforcement reinforcement Guidelines for the Effective use of Intermittent Guidelines Reinforcement Reinforcement 1. Use appropriate instruments and materials to Use determine accurately and conveniently when the behavior should be reinforced behavior – 2. Start out with a high rate of reinforcement then Start decrease gradually – 3. Make sure you can track the schedule Start with a low schedule requirement then increase Start requirement as learning occurs requirement If applicable, explain the schedule If ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course PHY 205 taught by Professor Barlly during the Spring '11 term at University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

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