Ch7 - Ch 7 Ch Types of Intermittent Types Reinforcement to...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 7 Ch Types of Intermittent Types Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Schedules in this chapter are used to decrease or eliminate responding that is inappropriate. inappropriate. Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates Differential (DRL) (DRL) If reinforcement occurs when responding is If occurring at a low rate, responding will subsequently tend to occur at a low rate subsequently Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates Differential (DRL) (DRL) – Limited responding DRL Specifies a maximum number of allowable Specifies responses during a certain interval in order for reinforcement to occur reinforcement Individual does not need to respond at all to Individual receive reinforcement – Useful when two conditions hold true Some of the behavior is tolerable Less is better (than is occurring now) Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates Differential (DRL) (DRL) – Spaced-responding DRL Spaced-responding Requires that a specified behavior does not occur during a specified interval, and that after the interval has passed, that an instance of that behavior must then occur for reinforcement. behavior If a response occurs before the end of the interval, If the interval timing restarts the – Useful when the behavior you want to reduce is actually Useful desirable, provided it does not occur at too high a rate desirable, Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Zero (other) Differential Responding (DRO) Responding – Reinforcer is presented only if the behavior Reinforcer does not occur for a specified period of time. does – Occurrences of the target behavior results in Occurrences the interval timing to restart the Gary’s scratching and his tokens Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Zero (other) Differential Responding (DRO) Responding – The DRO interval length should be The continuously increased gradually until continuously The behavior is occurring very rarely or not at all A minimum amount of reinforcement is being given minimum for its nonoccurrence for Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Differential Behavior (DRI) Behavior Like a DRO but specifying explicitly an incompatible response to be reinforced in eliminating a particular target response – Incompatible response A response that can not be emitted at the same response time as the target response time – sitting and standing Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Differential Behaviors (DRA) Behaviors Involves the extinction of a problem Involves behavior combined with reinforcing a behavior that is topographically dissimilar to, but not necessarily incompatible with, the problem behavior the Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior 1. Decide which schedule to use – If some of the target behavior is tolerable , but If less is better use a limited-responding DRL limited-responding – If the behavior is desirable as long as it does If not occur too rapidly or too frequently use a not spaced-responding DRL spaced-responding Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior 1. Decide which schedule to use (cont) – If the behavior needs to be eliminated without If a fear of reinforcing an undesirable alternative behavior use a DRO DRO – If there is fear of reinforcing an undesirable If alternative use a DRI or DRA DRI DRA Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior 1. Decide what reinforcer to use • Procedure will be most effective if the Procedure reinforcer is the one maintaining the behavior that you want to reduce and if the behavior reinforcer can be withheld for that behavior reinforcer Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior 1. After choosing a schedule A. If using a limited responding DRL A. • record a baseline • Number of target responses per session for several Number sessions or more to obtain a value for the DRL schedule schedule Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior 1. After choosing a schedule A. If using a limited responding DRL A. (cont) (cont) • Gradually decrease the responses allowed to Gradually occur maintaining high enough reinforcement as to not disrupt behavior to Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior 1. After choosing a schedule A. If using a limited responding DRL A. (cont) (cont) • Gradually increase the interval length • Decreases response rate • So if it was a LR10DRL40s • Increase It to a LR10DRL1min Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior A. If using a spaced-responding DRL If schedule schedule • Record baseline date over several sessions Record or more, determine the average time between responses, use this average as the starting interval for the DRL schedule starting Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior A. If using a spaced-responding DRL If schedule (cont) schedule • Gradually increase the value of the DRL Gradually schedule in such a way that reinforcement occurs frequently enough to ensure progress progress Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior A. If DRO A. Record baseline data over several sessions Record or more to obtain an initial interval for the DRO DRO Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior C. If DRO (cont) – DRO starting value should be approximately DRO equal to the mean value between instances of the target behavior during baseline the – Gradually increase the size of the interval in Gradually such a way that reinforcement occurs frequently enough to ensure progress frequently Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Intermittent Guidelines Schedules to Decrease Behavior Schedules A. If a DRI is to be used • • Choose an appropriate incompatible behavior to be Choose reinforced as the alternative reinforced Take baseline data on the appropriate behavior Take over several sessions to determine how frequently the appropriate behavior should be reinforced to raise it to such a level at which it will replace the inappropriate behavior inappropriate Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior A. If a DRI is to be used (cont) • Choose an appropriate schedule of Choose reinforcement for increasing the appropriate behavior behavior Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior A. If a DRI is to be used (cont) – While strengthening the incompatible, apply While the guidelines for extinction to the problem behavior behavior – Gradually increase the size of the interval in Gradually such a way that reinforcement occurs frequently enough to ensure progress frequently Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior A. If DRA is used • Follow all of the guidelines for DRI except Follow alternative behavior does not have to be incompatible incompatible • But should always try to match function But (reinforcer) (reinforcer) Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Behavior Guidelines for the Effective use of Guidelines Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Behavior 4. Always inform the person ...
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