CH8 - Ch 8 Ch 8 Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 8 Ch 8 Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Stimulus Control • 3 term analysis (ABC) – Antecedent • The stimuli (stimulation) that exists right before the before occurs – Behavior – Consequence • The change in the stimulation that existed right before the behavior occurred Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Stimulus Control • Stimulus Control – Is when a particular behavior is more likely to occur in the presence of particular stimulus • Stimulus Discrimination Learning – The process by which we learn to emit a specific behavior in the presence of some stimuli and not others Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Stimulus Control • Stimulus Discrimination Training – The procedure of reinforcing a behavior in the presence of a specific stimulus while extinguishing it in the presence of another Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Stimulus Control • Types of controlling stimuli: – SD S∆ • Both are established through discrimination training – SD • • • Discriminative stimulus for responding Signifies reinforcement is available A cue that a particular response will pay off Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Stimulus Control • Types of controlling stimuli: – S∆ • A stimulus in the presence of which another stimulus has been extinguished • A cue that a particular response will not pay off • Stimulus Discrimination Training – The procedure of reinforcing a behavior in the presence of an SD while extinguishing it in the presence of an S∆ Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Generalization • When behavior becomes more probable in the presence of one stimulus or situation as a result of being reinforced in the presence of another stimulus or situation Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Reasons why Stimulus Generalization Occurs • Unlearned stimulus generalization due to considerable physical similarity – The more physically similar two objects are the more stimulus generalization will occur between them Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Reasons why Stimulus Generalization Occurs • Learned stimulus generalization involving minimal physical similarity – Stimulus common element class (stimulus class) • Set of stimuli, all of which have some physical characteristics in common – Conceptual (concept) behavior • Generalizing to all members within a stimulus class and discriminating between stimulus classes Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Reasons why Stimulus Generalization Occurs • Learned stimulus generalization due to stimulus equivalence classes – train • • • 3 to :. :. to lll Get 3 to lll and lll to 3 Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Reasons why Stimulus Generalization Occurs • Learned stimulus generalization due to stimulus equivalence classes (cont) – Train • • • Spoken word “red” to color RED color RED to the written word red Spoken word “red” to the written word red Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Reasons why Stimulus Generalization Occurs • Stimulus Generalization – When a response that has been reinforced to one stimulus occurs to a different stimulus • “When behavior becomes more probable in the presence of one stimulus or situation as a result of being reinforced in the presence of another stimulus or situation” Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training 1. Choosing distinct signals – When considering a stimulus to be set up as an SD for the behavior of another person, ask yourself the following questions • • Is the stimulus different from other stimuli along more than one dimension? Is the stimulus one that can be presented only (or at least mainly) on occasions when the desired response should occur? Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training 1. Choosing distinct signals – When considering a stimulus to be set up as an SD for the behavior of another person, ask yourself the following questions (cont) • • Is the stimulus such that there is a high probability of the person attending to it when it is presented? Are there any undesirable responses that may be controlled by the chosen stimulus ? Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training 1. Minimizing the opportunity for error • The more errors or incorrect responses (responses to the S∆) the longer for stimulus control to form • If possible arrange the environment to minimize incorrect responding • Moving the phone out of the reach of children to prevent them from answering it when it is not ringing Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training • Maximizing the number of trials – when conducting stimulus discrimination training expect it to take many trials • Reduce the number of trials it takes by consistently only presenting the SD when reinforcement is available Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training 1. Make Use of Rules: Describe Contingencies • Contingency shaped behavior • Behavior that is developed by direct­acting effects of reinforcement, in the absence of statements to or by an individual specifying the contingencies Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training 1. Make Use of Rules: Describe Contingencies (cont) • Rule governed behavior • Behavior that is controlled by the statement of a rule Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training 1. Make Use of Rules: Describe Contingencies • Contingency shaped behavior • Behavior that is developed by direct­acting effects of reinforcement, in the absence of statements to or by an individual specifying the contingencies Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Guidelines for effective application of stimulus discrimination training 1. Choose distinct signals . • Specify theSD and at least on S∆ • Specify conditions under which the behavior should and should not be reinforced Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Guidelines for effective application of stimulus discrimination training 1. Select an appropriate reinforcer 3. Develop the discrimination – Arrange for several reinforced responses • Specify clearly in a rule the ABCs • • • • Keep verbal cues constantly, initially Post rules in a conspicuous spot/review frequently Use prompts to emphasize cues (useless if not attended to) Use prompts initially to teach the individual to respond at a certain time • Describe the cue that means reinforcement is available (SD ) and the cue that indicates reinforcement is not available S∆ Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Guidelines for effective application of stimulus discrimination training 3. Develop the discrimination (cont) – When the S∆ is present make the change very obvious and follow the rules for extinction for the behavior of concern Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization Guidelines for effective application of stimulus discrimination training 1. Weaning the individual from the program • Consider switching to natural reinforcers • • Look for reinforcers in the environment that may be occurring with the SD and not the S∆ Plan periodic assessments to verify it is at least occasionally being reinforced and maintained at the desirable level ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course PHY 205 taught by Professor Barlly during the Spring '11 term at University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

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