Ch10 - Ch 10 Ch Getting a new behavior to Getting occur: an...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 10 Ch Getting a new behavior to Getting occur: an application of shaping shaping Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Shaping The development of a behavior by the The successive reinforcement of closer approximations and the extinguishing of preceding approximations preceding • Shaping language in children Initially reinforce “mmm” and “ddd” • Then reinforce “maa” or “daa,” extinguishing “mmm” Then and “ddd” and • Then reinforce “mom” and “dad,” extinguishing “maa” Then or “daa,” Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Shaping 5 aspects (dimensions) of behavior that can aspects be shaped: be • • • • • Topography Frequency Duration Latency Intensity (force) Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Shaping Shapeable dimensions of behavior (cont) • Topography The spatial configuration or form of a particular response The (the specific movement involved) (the • What the behavior looks like What • Frequency Number of instances that occur • 30 responses • Duration Number of instances that occur in a given period of time • 0.5 responses per minute Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Shaping Shapeable dimensions of behavior (cont) • Duration The length of time a response lasts • NOT a good dimension for button pressing, or when NOT the time period is inconsistent, or unknown the • GOOD dimension for screaming, or exercise • Latency Time between the occurrence of a stimulus (SD) and the and response evoked by that stimulus response • Light turning green and taking off from the light • Reaction time Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Shaping Shapeable dimensions of behavior (cont) • Intensity (force) The physical effect the response has (or could have) on The the environment. the Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Factors influencing the effectiveness of Factors shaping shaping 1. Specify the final desired (terminal) 1. behavior behavior Define and describe the terminal behavior in Define specific, observable terms specific, • Describe all 5 dimensions as thoroughly as Describe possible possible A thorough description increases the chances of thorough consistent reinforcement of successive approximations Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Factors influencing the effectiveness of Factors shaping shaping 2 Choosing a starting behavior One that occurs often enough to be reinforced One within the session time within One that approximates the terminal behavior Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Factors influencing the effectiveness of Factors shaping shaping 1. Choosing the shaping steps • • Identify the steps involved No guidelines for identifying the ideal step No size size • Depends on the learner’s ability Depends Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Factors influencing the effectiveness of Factors shaping shaping 1. Moving along at the correct pace • Rules of thumb • • • Reinforce an approximation at least several times Reinforce before proceeding to the next step before Avoid reinforcing any one step too many time If you lose a behavior because you are moving If too fast or taking too large of a step, return to an earlier aproximation earlier Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Pitfalls of Shaping Shaping higher intensity inappropriate Shaping behaviors failed extinction programs failed The behavior is too dangerous to allow to The continue Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Guidelines for the effective application of Guidelines shaping shaping 1. Select the terminal behavior • • Choose a specific behavior (working Choose quietly), not a general category (good classroom behavior classroom Try to choose a behavior that will be Try maintained by naturally occurring contingencies contingencies Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Guidelines for the effective application of Guidelines shaping shaping 1. Select an appropriate reinforcer • Preference assessments • • Use stimuli that the individual likes Stimuli should be Stimuli • • • • readily available Able to be presented immediately Able to be used repeatedly without satiating Do not require a great deal of time to consume Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Guidelines for the effective application of Guidelines shaping shaping 1. The initial plan • List successive approximations to the List terminal behavior beginning with the starting behavior behavior Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Guidelines for the effective application of Guidelines shaping shaping 1. Implementing the plan • • • Tell the learner about the plan Begin reinforcing immediately following each Begin occurrence of the starting behavior occurrence Never move to a new approximation until the Never learner has mastered the previous one. learner Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Guidelines for the effective application of Guidelines shaping shaping 1. Implementing the plan (cont) • • If you are not sure when to move to the next If step, use a criteria of 6 out of 10 correct on the previous step the don’t over or under reinforce at any one step don’t and Getting a new behavior to occur: an application of shaping application Guidelines for the effective application of shaping 1. Implementing the plan (cont) • If the learner stops working, you may have moved If up too quickly, the steps may not be the right size, or the reinforcer may be ineffective or • • • Check you reinforcer If learner looks bored or is inattentive your steps may be If too small or you progressed too quickly too If the learner is still having problems, add steps at the point If of difficulty of ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course PHY 205 taught by Professor Barlly during the Spring '11 term at University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

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