Ch11 - Ch 11 Ch Getting a New Sequence of Getting Behaviors...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 11 Ch Getting a New Sequence of Getting Behaviors to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Behavioral Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Behavioral Chaining – A sequence of discriminative stimuli (SDs) and s) responses which each response except the last produces the SDs for the next response, and the produces for last response is typically followed by the reinforcer reinforcer – Not only is each response an SD for the next for response, but each SD is a conditioned response, reinforcer for the previous response reinforcer Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Methods for teaching a behavioral chain – Three major methods Total task presentation Backward chaining Forward chaining Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Methods for teaching a behavioral chain – Three major methods Total task presentation – Learner attempts all steps from beginning to end of chain Learner on each trial on – Prompting provided at each step as necessary – Reinforcement after final step Backward chaining Forward chaining Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Methods for teaching a behavioral chain – Three major methods Total task presentation Backward chaining – Last step is established first, then the next to last step – Teacher performs all the steps prior to the step being Teacher learned learned Backward chaining has the advantage of built in Backward conditioned reinforcers to strengthen each new response response Forward chaining Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Methods for teaching a behavioral chain – Three major methods Total task presentation Backward chaining Forward chaining – – – – The initial step or link is taught first Next the first and second steps are taught and linked Then the first three steps Then four Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Methods for teaching a behavioral chain – Which method (forward, backward, total) is most Which effective? effective? Total task has several advantages for teaching individuals with Total developmental disabilities developmental – Teacher spends less time partially assembling and disassembling Teacher preparing for trials preparing – Appears to focus on teaching response topography and response Appears sequence simultaneously, which should produce results more quickly quickly – Maximizes the learner’s independence early in training By allowing learner to combine steps he or she is familiar with Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Methods for teaching a behavioral chain – Chaining compared with fading and shaping Shaping – Reinforce closer and closer approximations to a terminal behavior Fading – Reinforcing desired response in closer and closer approximations Reinforcing of the target stimulus of Chaining – Reinforcing more and more stimulus-response links to complete Reinforcing the chain the You use shaping and fading in a chaining procedure Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Factors influencing the effectiveness of the Factors behavioral chain behavioral 1. Do a task analysis: identify the Do components of the final sequence components – Task analysis Breaking a task down into smaller steps or Breaking component responses to facilitate training component – Breaking down tasks into steps is subjective, but the Breaking number of steps is influenced by difficulty of steps and level of functioning of learner level Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Factors influencing the effectiveness of the Factors behavioral chain behavioral 1. Consider strategies for independent us of Consider prompts by learners prompts • Use self-monitoring checklists or picture lists The individual uses the checklist or pictures as The prompts as to the next response, and marks off when they did it when Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Factors influencing the effectiveness of the Factors behavioral chain behavioral 3. Consider conducting a preliminary 3. modeling trial modeling • Model the entire sequence while verbally Model describing each step describing Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Factors influencing the effectiveness of the Factors behavioral chain behavioral 1. Begin training the behavioral chain • • • Give the learner the initial request to start If the learner stops responding or looks distracted give If them a pacing prompt of “what’s next” or “carry on” them If the learner responds incorrectly or fails to begin If responding at any step within a reasonable ,period of time provide the necessary instruction or physical promt promt Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Factors influencing the effectiveness of the Factors behavioral chain behavioral 1. Consider using ample social and other Consider reinforcers reinforcers • Provide social praise for correct completion of Provide steps and a different reinforcer for completing the entire chain the • A llot of times the product of completing the chain ot will act as a natural reinforcer will Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Factors influencing the effectiveness of the Factors behavioral chain behavioral 1. Decrease extra assistance at individual Decrease steps as quickly as possible steps • Fade out the additional prompts Fade • Avoid prompt dependency Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Pitfalls of Behavior Chaining Adventitious chain – Chain that contains a response member that is Chain not necessary for reinforcement not Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Guidelines for the effective use of behavioral Guidelines chaining chaining 1. Do a task analysis and identify the steps Do that are simple enough to be learned without too much difficulty without 2. Consider strategies for independent Consider prompts (checklists, pictures) prompts 3. If necessary, do a preliminary modeling If trial trial Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Guidelines for the effective use of behavioral Guidelines chaining chaining 1. Teach each step in the order decided upon 2. Use a fading procedure to reduce extra help that Use may be required by a learner for some steps may 3. If using backward or forward chaining make sure If the learner performs all steps learned up to the step being taught, on every trial step Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Guidelines for the effective use of behavioral Guidelines chaining chaining 7. Use ample reinforcement for correct 7. performance early in training, and reduce reinforcement as the learner becomes more skillful Getting a New Sequence of Behavior to Occur with Behavioral Chaining Chaining Guidelines for the effective use of behavioral Guidelines chaining chaining 8. The more effective the terminal reinforcer, 8. the more stable the links in the chain the ...
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