Ch13 - Ch 13 Ch Establishing a Desirable Establishing...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 13 Ch Establishing a Desirable Establishing Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning Establishing a Desirable Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning Escape conditioning – There are some stimuli whose removal immediately after the occurrence of a response will increase the likelihood of that response negative reinforcement Establishing a Desirable Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning Avoidance Conditioning – A behavior will increase in frequency if it prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring – Discriminated avoidance conditioning Training where a stimulus is conditioned to be a warning stimulus (conditioned punisher) – Warning stimulus Signals the occurrence of the aversive stimulus (punisher) Establishing a Desirable Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning Avoidance Conditioning – A behavior will increase in frequency if it prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring – Discriminated avoidance conditioning Training where a stimulus is conditioned to be a warning stimulus (conditioned punisher) by being paired with punishment – Warning stimulus Signals the occurrence of the aversive stimulus (punisher) Establishing a Desirable Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning Escape and avoidance behaviors – Escape behavior turns off a punisher – Avoidance behavior keeps the punisher from turning on (happening) – Discriminated avoidance conditioning Is how the learner knows punishment is coming if they don’t stop doing what they are doing; warning stimulus has been paired with aversive stimulation so now it signals punishment Establishing a Desirable Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning Guidelines for the effective application of escape and avoidance conditioning 1. Given a choice between escape and avoidance conditioning, choose avoidance Avoidance conditioning exposes the individual to less aversive stimulation (punishment) than escape In escape conditioning, the (escape) response does not occur until the backup aversive stimulus (punisher) is present In avoidance conditioning, the response occurs to the warning signal, avoiding the onset of the backup aversive stimulus Establishing a Desirable Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning Guidelines for the effective application of escape and avoidance conditioning 1. The target behavior should be established by escape conditioning before it is put on an avoidance procedure – The example w/the guy who slouched: he learned how to terminate the tone before he learned how to terminate the clicking Establishing a Desirable Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning 1. • Guidelines for the effective application of escape and avoidance conditioning During avoidance conditioning, a warning stimulus should signal the impending aversive stimulus Enhances conditioning by providing a warning that failure to respond will result in aversive stimulation Such as the “violation” sign on the parking meter Establishing a Desirable Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning 1. • Guidelines for the effective application of escape and avoidance conditioning Escape and avoidance conditioning, like punishment, should be used carefully These procedures involve aversive stimuli and therefore are susceptible to side effects such as: Aggression Fearfulness Tendency to avoid or escape any person associated with the procedure Establishing a Desirable Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning 1. • Guidelines for the effective application of escape and avoidance conditioning Use positive reinforcement for the target response in conjunction with escape avoidance conditioning The addition of positive reinforcement will reduce the side effects of using aversive stimulation in the escape avoidance conditioning Establishing a Desirable Behavior Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Conditioning Guidelines for the effective application of escape and avoidance conditioning 6. Tell the individual ...
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