Ch14 - Ch 14 Ch Procedures Based on Procedures Principles...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 14 Ch Procedures Based on Procedures Principles of Respondent Conditioning Conditioning Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Operant vs respondent conditioning • Operant behavior Behavior that operates on the environment to generate consequences, and are in turn controlled by those consequences • Respondent behavior Basically reflexive behavior Occurs in response to a stimulus • Does not occur as a result of prior reinforcement Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Principles of respondent conditioning • Respondent (Pavlovian) conditioning If a neutral stimulus is followed closely in time by an unconditioned stimulus (US) which elicits an unconditioned response (UR), then the previously neutral stimulus will also tend to elicit the unconditioned response (UR) in the future • Based on the fact that certain stimuli automatically elicit certain responses apart from any prior learning or conditioning experience These automatic stimulus­response relationships are called unconditioned reflexes Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Principles of respondent conditioning • Unconditioned stimulus A stimulus that elicits a response without prior conditioning • Unconditioned response A response elicited by a (unconditioned) stimulus without prior conditioning Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Principles of respondent conditioning • conditioned stimulus (CS) A stimulus that elicits a response after repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus • conditioned response (CR) A response elicited by a conditioned stimulus • Essentially, it is the unconditioned response elicited by the US with which the CS was paired Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Factors influencing respondent conditioning • The more times the CS is paired with the US the greater ability the CS will have to elicit the CR • Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by about a half second, rather than longer than a half second, or following the US Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Factors influencing respondent conditioning • A CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with the US rather than occasionally being paired • When several stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Factors influencing respondent conditioning • Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS, US, or both are intense rather than week Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Higher­order conditioning • Presenting a neutral stimulus just prior to the presentation of a CS until it elicits the CR Effectively creating two CS The neutral stimulus will eventually elicit the same CR as the CS it is paired with So a neutral stimulus is paired with a US, turning the neutral stimulus into a CS because it now elicits the CR (first order conditioning). Then another neutral stimulus is paired with the CS until it elicits the CR too (second order conditioning) Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Respondent extinction • Presenting the CS with out it being paired with the US repeatedly Eventually the CS will loose its ability to elicit the CR Counter conditioning • A conditioned response may be eliminated more effectively if a new response is conditioned to the CS at the same time the former CR is being extinguished Pairing the CS with a different US will result in faster respondent extinction Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Common respondently conditioned responses • Digestive system Salivation reflex to food Butterflies in the stomach before public speaking • Circulatory system Blushing Startle reflex Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Common respondently conditioned responses • Respiratory system Coughing Sneezing Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Common respondently conditioned responses • Biological preparedness members of a species are predisposed to be more readily conditioned to some stimuli as CSs • One trial learning We are predisposed, for survival value, to learn from one trial when we consume something that makes us ill • Conditioned taste aversion Getting sick from consuming something, then getting sick on future occasions that you contact the consumable Describe the escape avoidance components of conditioned taste aversion Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Respondent and operant conditioning compared • Responses Respondent­ behaviors are reflexive in that they occur automatically to prior stimuli, and are typically referred to as involuntary • Involves smooth muscles and glands Operant­ is, in contrast, controlled by consequences, and is sometimes referred to as voluntary • Involves more skeletal muscles Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Respondent and operant conditioning compared • Reinforcement (conditioning) Respondent • Pair a neutral stimulus (NS) with a US before response Result is the NS (now a CS) can elicit the CR Operant • Presentation of a reinforcer immediately following a response Operant behavior increases in frequency Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Respondent and operant conditioning compared • Extinction Respondent • The presentation of a CS without further pairings with the US The CS loses the ability to elicit the CR Operant • Withholding a reinforcer following a previously reinforced response Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Respondent and operant conditioning compared • CSs and SDs Similar in that they both control responses that have been conditioned to them • CS elicit a conditioned response (respondent behavior is elicited by a stimulus) • SDs evoke the responses conditioned to them (operant behavior is evoked) Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning Respondent Applications of respondent conditioning • Aversion therapy Is the repeated pairing of a troublesome reinforcer with an aversive event (punishment) symbolic representations (often pictures) of the troublesome reinforcer are often used in place of actual items Rapid­smoking aversion therapy Make the person smoke until they get nauseous Antabuse (disulfiram) The combination of the med with alcohol induces nausea Nocturnal Enuresis (bed wetting) Pairing a bell or tone with the first drops of urine to condition a wake response to the feeling of a full bladder Chronic Constipation • • • • ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course PHY 205 taught by Professor Barlly during the Spring '11 term at University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

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