Ch16 - Ch16 Ch16 Transferring Behavior to New Settings and...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch16 Ch16 Transferring Behavior to New Settings and Making it Last: Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Generality When the trained behavior transfers from the training situation to the natural environment Training leads to the development of new behavior that has not been specifically trained When the trained behavior is maintained over time Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Generality Stimulus generalization Results when a response becomes more probable in the presence of one stimulus or setting as a result of being reinforced in the presence of another stimulus or setting Three primary reasons The more physically similar two stimulus are the more generalization will occur Stimuli are members of a stimulus common­element class (set of stimuli that have some physical characteristic in common) Are members of a stimulus equivalence class Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Generality Response Generalization When a behavior becomes more probable in the presence of a stimulus or situation as a result of another behavior having been reinforced in the presence of that stimulation or situation Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Generality Response Generalization Occurs for several reasons Unlearned response generalization due to considerable physical similarity of response Forehand shot learned in racquetball may generalize to tennis Skills in ice skating may generalize to rollerblading Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Generality Response Generalization Occurs for several reasons Learned response generalization based on minimal physical similarity Putting the letter “s” on the end of every plural Learned response generalization due to functionally equivalent responses Different responses that produce the same consequence are called functionally equivalent responses. Example: Lighting a match Lighting a lighter Place a stick in a fire that’s already burning Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Generality Response Generalization Occurs for several reasons Behavioral momentum As a result of some responses being emitted and reinforced, the probability of other functionally equivalent responses temporarily increase Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Operant Behavior Train the target situation Make the final stages of the training situation similar to the target situation in as many ways as possible Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Operant Behavior Vary the training conditions Conduct training sessions exerting little control over the stimuli present during reinforcement Conduct training in as many different settings as possible Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Operant Behavior Program common stimuli Developing the behavior to specific stimuli that are present in both training and target settings Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Operant Behavior Train Sufficient Stimulus Exemplars Stimulus and response generalization are more likely to occur when you train with a lot of different stimuli and a variety of situations Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Programming operant response generalization Train sufficient response exemplars Teaching plurals Teach singular and plural of several objects until plural can be given when only given the singular Vary the acceptable response during training In block building, to reinforce creativity, arrangements of blocks that were different from prior arrangements got reinforced Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Programming Operant Behavior Maintenance Behavioral trapping: allow natural contingencies of reinforcement to take effect Identify contingencies in the natural environment and tailor the target behavior to those contingencies Socializing for a shy kid Speech, teaching requests (mands first) Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Programming Operant Behavior Maintenance Change the behavior of people in the natural environment Individuals (bus, citi lift, cab drivers, home staff, family, etc.) who contact the target behaviors Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Programming Operant Behavior Maintenance Use intermittent scheduled of reinforcement in the target situation Reinforce the behavior on an intermittent schedule in the target environment to increase the persistence of the behavior while natural reinforcers take over Give the control to the individual Self monitoring would involve Assessing and recording instances of generalized behavior Provide reinforcement Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Guidelines for programming generality of operant behaviors 1. Choose target behaviors that are most useful to the learner They will have the best chance of being naturally maintained 2. Teach the target behavior in an environment that is as similar to the target behavior as possible Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Guidelines for programming generality of operant behaviors 3. Vary the training conditions so as to maximally sample relevant stimulus dimensions for transfer to other situation and to reinforce various forms of the desirable behavior Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Guidelines for programming generality of operant behaviors 4. Establish the target behavior successively in as many situations as feasible, starting with the easiest and progressing to the more difficult Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Guidelines for programming generality of operant behaviors 1. Program common stimuli (such as rules) that might facilitate transfer to novel environments 2. Vary the acceptable responses in the training situation Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change 1. 2. Guidelines for programming generality of operant behaviors Gradually decrease the amount of reinforcement in training so it is less than occurring in the natural environment When changing to a new situation, increase the amount of reinforcement in that situation to offset the learner discriminating the new situation Generality of Behavior Change Generality of Behavior Change Guidelines for programming generality of operant behaviors 1. Ensure sufficient reinforcement to maintain the behavior in the natural environment • Not only for the learner but for the people in the natural environment implementing the plan Parent, staff etc. ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course PHY 205 taught by Professor Barlly during the Spring '11 term at University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

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