Ch19 - Ch19 Ch19 Motivation and Behavior Modification...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch19 Ch19 Motivation and Behavior Modification Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification • A traditional view of motivation Many people view motivation as some “thing” within us that causes our actions – Involves circular reasoning­the causal “thing” is usually inferred from the very behavior it is supposed to explain • Why does Suzie work hard? Because she is highly motivated. How do we know she is highly motivated? Because she works hard Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification A traditional view of motivation • Practical limitations to viewing motivation as an inner cause – assuming internal causes of behavior influences people to ignore the principles of behavior – May influence some to blame the individual for poor performance, rather than trying to help such individuals improve – May influence some to blame themselves for failure to emit various behaviors rather than examining various self­ management strategies for improving their performance Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Behavioral View of Motivation • Motivating Operations – Events or operations that • Temporarily alter the effectiveness of consequences as reinforcers or punishers • Influence behaviors that normally lead to those reinforcers – A type of antecedent environmental manipulation Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Behavioral View of Motivation • Motivating Operations – Motivating establishing operations (MEOs) • Increases effectiveness of reinforcers • Increases responding – Deprivation – Motivating abolishing operations (MAOs) • Decreases effectiveness of a consequence as a reinforcer • Decreases responding that has resulted in that consequence – Satiation Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Behavioral View of Motivation • Motivating Operations and punishment – If an MEO increases the effectiveness of a reinforcer, the effectiveness of a punisher restricting access to that reinforcer (time out) is increased Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Unconditioned Versus Conditioned Motivating Operations • Unconditioned motivating establishing operations – – – Extreme temperatures Onset of painful stimuli Deprivation of: • Food, Water, sleep, activity, oxygen, sexual stimulation Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Unconditioned Versus Conditioned Motivating Operations • Conditioned motivating operations (CMOs) – Alter the effectiveness of consequences as reinforcers or punishers because of prior learning • Such as rules, instructions, etc. Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Unconditioned Versus Conditioned Motivating Operations • CMEOs and SDs – An SD is a cue that tells you what to do to get what you already want – A CMEO is a cue that changes what you want and tells you what to do to get whatever it is that you now want Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Unconditioned Versus Conditioned Motivating Operations • CMAOs and S∆s – S∆ is a cue that tells the individual a particular response will not be reinforced – CMAO motivates someone to no longer want a particular consequence (reinforcer) and decreases behavior that has led to that consequence Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Unconditioned Versus Conditioned Motivating Operations • CMAOs and S∆s – “Discriminative variables (SDs and S∆s) are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; Motivating variables (CMEOs and CMAOs) are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events” (Micheal, 1993) Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Some Applications of MOs • Teaching mands to children with autism – Mand • A request (or demand) for something somebody wants – The person is usually reinforced by receiving what they requested Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Some Applications of MOs • Teaching mands to children with autism – Structured Mand Training • Typically begins with teaching a child to mand for (request) a reinforcer that has high reinforcing value (such as a highly preferred food or activity) Motivation and Behavior Motivation and Behavior Modification Some Applications of MOs • Teaching mands to children with autism – Structured Mand Training • Training a mand for juice – Typically start with a single sip of juice. Then deliver an SD with a model • “What do you want? Say juice” • Reinforce with juice when juice is said • Fade out the model prompt ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course PHY 205 taught by Professor Barlly during the Spring '11 term at University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

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