Ch25 - Ch.25 Ch.25 Token Economies Token Economies Token...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch.25 Ch.25 Token Economies Token Economies Token Economies • Tokens – Conditioned reinforcers that can accumulated and be exchanged for backup reinforcers • Token economy – A program in which a group of individuals earn tokens for a variety of desirable Bxs and exchange them for backup reinforcers Token Economies Token Economies • Initial steps in setting up a token economy – Deciding on target behaviors • Depends on group (sports teams) • Can be individualized (classrooms) – Take baseline – Select backup reinforcers – Select tokens • Should be durable and portable • Avoid tokens that can be counterfeited Token Economies Token Economies • Identify available help • Choose a location – Probably don’t have a choice • Wherever the behavior is occurring Token Economies Token Economies • Specific implementation procedures – Keeping data • Who, when, and on what – The reinforcing agent • Who’s going to reinforce which behaviors for accountability – The number of frequency of tokens to pay • Lots at first • Then thin it out Token Economies Token Economies • Managing the backup reinforcers – When can individuals exchange tokens • Often at first to strengthen the token as a conditioned reinforcer – The cost of backups • How many tokens for a backup – Supply and demand • Highest preferred should cost the most – Therapeutic value of reinforcer • Possible punishment contingencies Token Economies Token Economies • Program generality to the natural environment – Weaning a client from tokens • Eliminate them gradually – Make the schedule of token delivery more and more intermittent – Decrease # of behaviors that earn tokens • Decrease their value gradually – Increase const of backups – Increase delay between earning tokens and exchanging them Token Economies Token Economies • Possible punishment contingencies – Response cost • In a token system a response cost is usually a token fine – Token fine • The removal of tokens contingent upon the occurrence of undesirable behaviors ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course PHY 205 taught by Professor Barlly during the Spring '11 term at University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

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