Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with mybiology" (4th Edition)

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KroghF09.016 Biochemistry January 7, 2011 BIOCHEMISTRY I. Water’s Place in Life (Chapter 2, Section 2.4) A. The surface of Earth is 71% water – a human body is 66% water B. Life’s chemistry takes place in “aqueous solution” C. Solutions: Solvent and Solutes (Figs. 2.15) D. Special properties of water – mostly due to Hydrogen Bonding 1. Liquid water is less dense than ice (Fig. 2.16) 2. Water has very high heat storage 3. Water is cohesive and adhesive 4. Water is the “universal solvent” – but only for hydrophilic substances, not hydrophobic materials II. Acids and Bases (Chapter 2, Section 2.5) A. Small amount of water disassociates into ions 1. Hydrogen ions: H + 2. Hydroxide ions: OH -- B. Acids add hydrogen ions to the solution (Fig. 2.18) C. Bases reduce the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution D. The pH scale (Fig. 2.19) E. Life mostly requires pH between 6 and 8 1. “Pure Water” is pH 7 2. Acids and Bases disrupt chemical bonds by manipulating electrons
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III. Carbon and Organic Chemistry A. “Carbon Based Life” – 18% of human wet weight B. Carbon makes 4 covalent bonds * double and triple bonds possible * large number of possible compounds C. Carbon chains D. Carbon rings E. Some Functional Groups in Organic Compounds (Table 3.1) 1. Common Grouping of Atoms that have predictable properties 2. Hydroxyl Group : OH a. Formula for Alcohols R - OH b. Examples: CH 3 OH is Methanol C 2 H
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Topic3-Biochemistry - KroghF09.016 Biochemistry January 7...

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