Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with mybiology" (4th Edition)

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KroghS11.014 Community April 4, 2011 Topic 14 - Chapter 34 Community Ecology I. COMPONENTS OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES A. Populations of all species present Populations are inter-connected in food chains or food webs (Fig 35.12) B. Populations can be grouped by their form or by their function 1. Life Forms – basic structure of the organisms a. Plants: Trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses (many more) b. Animals: Vertebrates, invertebrates, filter-feeders, sessile (many more) c. Others: Fungi, microorganisms, bacteria 2. Functional Groups – Relate to their role in the food web and how they obtain their food. a. Guilds – groups of animal species that feed in the same way o Eg. Seed-eating birds o Sessile filter-feeders on the ocean bottom b. Ecological Niche – Described Below II. HABITATS AND NICHES A. Habitat - The place where a species lives 1. May be defined as a geographic location 2. Better defined by the Biome, Community and Microhabitat C. Niche 1. The specific function of each species within the ecosystem 2. Three kinds of Factors make up the niche:
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a. Tolerance Range for all Environmental Factors e.g. Temperature, Moisture, Nutrients b. Biological Factors - Interactions with other species 1. trophic level and position within Food Web 2. Other interactions e.g. competitors, predators, parasites c. Behavior e.g. diurnal vs. nocturnal, solitary vs. herd III. COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS
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Topic14a-CommunityEcology - KroghS11.014 Community April 4...

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