Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with mybiology" (4th Edition)

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BIOL Study Guide: Test 2 Energy, Cellular Respiration, and Photosynthesis DEFINITIONS: C 6 H 12 O 6 – Fuel source that begins the entire process. Produced in the Calvin cycle. O 2 – Final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. Produced after water donates its electron to photosystem II CO 2 – Released as glucose is broken down (the six carbons of glucose become six CO2 molecules). Used in the Calvin cycle to build carbohydrates. H 2 O – This is formed at the end of the electron transport chain. When oxygen accepts the electrons, it also accepts H+, forming water. Donates an electron to Photosystem II after its electron is excited and passed down the electron transport chain. Energy – The capacity to bring about movement against an opposing force. Potential Energy – Stored energy Kinetic Energy – Energy in motion Exergonic Reactions – Reactions in which the starting set of molecules (the reactants) contains more energy than the final set of molecules (the products). (the way energy is released in living things). Endergonic Reactions – Reactions in which the products contain more energy than the reactants. (the way energy is stored in living things). Coupled Reaction – A chemical reaction in which an exergonic reaction powers an endergonic reaction. Enzyme – A type of protein that accelerates a chemical reaction. Substrate – The substance that is worked on by an enzyme. (EX: lactase; ase- enzyme; lactose- substrate) Metabolic Pathway – A set of enzymatically controlled steps that results in the completion of a product or process in an organism. In such a sequence, each enzyme does a particular job and then leaves the succeeding task to the next enzyme, with the product of one reaction becoming the substrate for the next. Metabolism – The sum of all the chemical reactions that a cell or larger organism carries out. Activation Energy – The energy required to initiate a chemical reaction. Catalyst – Substances that retain their original chemical composition while bringing about a change in a substrate. Active Site – The portion of an enzyme that binds with a substrate, thus helping transform it. Coenzymes – Molecules other than amino acids that facilitate the work of enzymes by binding with them. Competitive Inhibition – A reduction in the activity of an enzyme by means of a compound other than the enzyme’s usual substrate binding with it in its active site. Allosteric Regulation – The regulation of an enzyme’s activity by means of a molecule binding to a site on the enzyme other than its active site. Electron Carriers – Molecule that serve to transfer electrons from one molecule to another in ATP formation. NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)
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Bio Test 2 SG - BIOL Study Guide Test 2 Energy Cellular...

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