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LING 102 Quiz 2 SG - LING 102 Study Guide Quiz 2 Syntax The...

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LING 102 Study Guide: Quiz 2 Syntax – The study of phrases, clauses and sentences. Lexical Categories – Word categories which include items such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Phrasal Categories – Include items such as noun phrases, verb phrases, adjective phrases, and adverb phrases. The theory is that every phrasal category includes at least one lexical category of the same basic type. For example, every noun phrase (NP) includes at least one noun (N). Structural Ambiguity – (American history teacher phenomenon) One way to explain this phenomenon is to assume that phrases are organized into hierarchical structures and that there are cases where more than one such structure can be assigned to a particular phrase. Under this hypothesis, American history teacher, can be assigned two different structures and therefore is structurally ambiguous. (e.g. ‘A teacher of American History’ or ‘A history teacher who is American’) Lexical Ambiguity – The condition of a word having more than one sense (e.g. star means both ‘heavenly body’ and ‘celebrity’). Underlying Structure – The structure that exists before any transformations have applied.
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