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Quiz 3 Study Guide - LING Quiz 3 Study Guide Ch 6 Phonology...

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LING Quiz 3 Study Guide Ch. 6 Phonology 1. Can you translate between a formal and informal statement of phonological rules? Phonological Rule – a formal succint statement that captures observed phonetic regularities. An example of formal statement of a rule Plural rule: (based on traditional , voice, manner and place features.) (a) Plural morpheme takes the form /iz/ if last sound in the noun to which it attaches is an alveolar fricative, alveopalatal fricative or an alveo-palatal affricate. (b) The plural morpheme takes the voice /z/ if the the last sound is voiced (c) The plural morpheme takes the voiceless form /s/ if the last sound in noun is voiceless. 2. Can you infer a simple phonological rule by examining data from various languages? A phonological rule that is present in one language may not be present in other languages, or even in all dialects of a given language. Ch. 8 L1 Acquisition 1. What are the prelinguistic stages of language acquisition? Crying Stage – reflexive sounds; involuntary sounds such as burping, coughing, sighing and sneezing. Cooing Cooing Stage – characterized primarily by vowel-like sounds Babbling Stage – characterized by syllable-like consonant-vowel sounds. There are various types of babbling (next question) 2. What are the types of babbling? Reduplicative or syllabic babbling – consists of repetitions of a syllable such as ba-ba-ba Variegated babbling – characterized by strings that vary a consonant or a vowel such as pa-ga-ba-ga Jargon babbling – characterized by prosodic or intonational patterns reminiscent of adult speech 3. Infants’ perceptual capabilities. Infants are able to perceive the difference between pairs of stimuli. Some methods have been devised for testing the perception of infants as young as 1 month old. It can be inferred from research that an infant can perceive between ba and pa and thus is capable of discriminating between [b] and [p].
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