PHIL_Study_Guide_Tes - ptions and arrives ultimately to an unhypothesized/unassumed First Principle(the Good M ethod Two reasons why Understanding

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c Method]; Two reasons why Understanding is inferior to Knowledge: ve senses: E.g., Humans, Animals, Plants, Artifacts) – Very unstable cognitive state PHIL 100 Study Guide Test 1 KEY TERMS : Metaphysics – a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world, although the term is not easily defined. Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms: 1."What is there?" 2."What is it like?" Epistemology – the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. It addresses the questions: 1. What is knowledge? 2. How is knowledge acquired? 3. How do we know what we know? Dialectic – discussion and reasoning by dialogue as a method of intellectual investigation; specifically: the Socratic techniques of exposing false beliefs and eliciting truth Rhetoric – The art or study of using language effectively and persuasively. Used by the Sophists, who were paid for teaching it. Rationalism – the doctrine that reason alone is a source of knowledge and is independent of experience. The doctrine that all knowledge is expressible in self-evident propositions or their consequences. Empiricism – a theory of knowledge which asserts that knowledge comes via the sense's experience. Empiricism is one of several competing views that predominate in the study of human knowledge, known as epistemology. Empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or tradition in contrast to, for example, rationalism which relies upon reason and can incorporate innate knowledge. Relativism – the philosophical doctrine that all criteria of judgment are relative to the individuals and situations involved. Questions 1. Why is Thales considered the first philosopher in the history of Western Philosophy? What decisive step did he take that led to the development of Western Philosophy? He is known for his famous statement, which affirms both a single unifying primary substance as well as divine omnipresence: “All is water, and the world is full of gods.” He is perhaps the first philosopher because we see in this single fragment attributed to him by ancient writers a transition from mythos to logos , from an earlier mythic mode of thought to the beginnings of an attempt to provide an naturalistic explanation for the world based on sense observation. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course PHIL 100 taught by Professor Curtis,b during the Spring '08 term at University of Hawaii - Hilo.

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PHIL_Study_Guide_Tes - ptions and arrives ultimately to an unhypothesized/unassumed First Principle(the Good M ethod Two reasons why Understanding

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