Volcanoes - GEO 401 Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards Ch 5...

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GEO 401 Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards Ch 5 Next lecture : Hydrologic Cycle, Groundwater, Ch 25 (pp. 529-539), Ch 27 In lab : Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks, Lab quiz M 6/21 Puyahue volcano Chile on June 6th 2011
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Volcanoes and volcanic hazards ² Lavas and extrusive igneous rocks ² basaltic ² rhyolitic ² andesitic ² Eruptive styles ² Volcanoes and volcanic landforms ² Global pattern of volcanism ² Volcanic hazards
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Side vent Pipe Central vent Lava flows Dike Sill Magma chamber Magma originates in  crust/lower mantle ...rises to form a crustal magma  chamber. Lavas erupt through a central vent, side vents, or fissures ...accumulating on the surface to form a volcano. Volcanoes
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How to make lava? (aka melt crust) 1. Increase temperature 2. Decrease pressure 3. Add water (See Figure 5- 20)
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Igneous Differentiation In a cooling magma chamber, mafic minerals begin to crystallize first , at high temperatures Temperature ~600°C ~1200°C Orthoclase feldspar Muscovite mica Quartz Biotite mica Amphibole Pyroxene Olivine Sodium- rich Calcium- rich Plagioclase feldspar Magma composition Felsic, Rhyolitic (high silica) Intermediate, andesitic Mafic, basaltic Ultramafic (low silica) Simultaneous crystallization Bowen’s reaction series See Figure 6-1 in text
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Igneous Classification See Table 6-1 in
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w Rich in Fe, Mg (
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Volcanoes - GEO 401 Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards Ch 5...

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