Review session-4

Review session-4 - REVIEW
SESSION‐
4
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Unformatted text preview: REVIEW
SESSION‐
4
 Proper1es
of
Solu1ons
 Indicate
the
type
of
solvent‐solute
interac5on
that
is
most
 important
in
the
following
solu5ons:
 (a)  NaCl
in
water 
 
 

 (b)
CH3Cl
in
benzene 
 

 (c)
Ammonia
(NH3)
in
water 

 Indicate
the
type
of
solvent‐solute
interac5on
that
is
most
 important
in
the
following
solu5ons:
 (a)  NaCl
in
water 
‐
Ion‐Dipole (b)
CH3Cl
in
benzene
 
 

 (c)
Ammonia
(NH3)
in
water 

 
 

 Indicate
the
type
of
solvent‐solute
interac5on
that
is
most
 important
in
the
following
solu5ons:
 (a)  NaCl
in
water 
‐
Ion‐Dipole 
 

 (b)
CH3Cl
in
benzene
–
Dispersion
forces 

 (c)
Ammonia
(NH3)
in
water 

 Indicate
the
type
of
solvent‐solute
interac5on
that
is
most
 important
in
the
following
solu5ons:
 (a)  NaCl
in
water 
‐
Ion‐Dipole 
 

 (b)
CH3Cl
in
benzene
–
Dispersion
forces 

 (c)
Ammonia
(NH3)
in
water
–
Hydrogen
Bonding 

 Which
of
the
following
is
true
if
a
reac5on
is
spontaneous?
 (a)
ΔS
<
0
 (b)
ΔG
>
0
 (c)
ΔG
<
0
 (d)
ΔH
>
0
 Which
of
the
following
is
true
if
a
reac5on
is
spontaneous?
 (a)
ΔS
<
0






 (b)
ΔG
>
0
 (c)
ΔG
<
0
 (d)
ΔH
>
0
 ΔG
=
ΔH
–
TΔS
 Which
of
the
following
gas
will
have
beMer
solubility
in
water?
 (a)  H2
 (b)  O2
 (c)  N2
 (d)  CO
 (e)  Ar
 Which
of
the
following
gas
will
have
beMer
solubility
in
water?
 (a)  H2
 (b)  O2
 (c)  N2
 (d)  CO
 (e)  Ar
 
More
Molecular
weight,
More
polarizability
and
More
solubility
 A
solu5on
of
Iodine
is
needed
for
an
experiment
and
the
following
 solvents
are
available.
Rank
these
solvents
in
decreasing
ability
to
 produce
a
solu5on
with
Iodine.
 (a)
CH2Cl2

(b)
CH3OH

(C)
CCl4

(d)
H2O
 A
solu5on
of
Iodine
is
needed
for
an
experiment
and
the
following
 solvents
are
available.
Rank
these
solvents
in
decreasing
ability
to
 produce
a
solu5on
with
Iodine.
 (a)
CH2Cl2

(b)
CH3OH

(C)
CCl4

(d)
H2O
 CCl4
>

CH2Cl2
>
CH3OH

>
H2O
 Imagine
a
solu5on
of
two
liquids
in
which
the
molecules
interact
 less
favorably
than
they
do
in
the
individual
liquids.
Will
this
 solu5on
deviate
posi5vely
from,
deviate
nega5vely
from,
or
ideally
 follow
Raoult's
law?
 a)  Posi5ve
devia5on
 b)  Nega5ve
devia5on
 c)  Ideal
solu5on
 Imagine
a
solu5on
of
two
liquids
in
which
the
molecules
interact
 less
favorably
than
they
do
in
the
individual
liquids.
Will
this
 solu5on
deviate
posi5vely
from,
deviate
nega5vely
from,
or
ideally
 follow
Raoult's
law?
 a)  Posi5ve
devia5on
 b)  Nega5ve
devia5on
 c)  Ideal
solu5on
 This
solu5on
will
have
a
vapor
pressure
that
is
slightly
higher
 than
the
value
predicted
by
Raoult's
law.
This
is
called
a
posi5ve
 devia5on.
 13.2)
Why
do
ionic
substances
with
higher
la\ce
energies
tend
to
 be
less
soluble
than
those
with
lower
la\ce
energies?
 13.2)
Why
do
ionic
substances
with
higher
la\ce
energies
tend
to
 be
less
soluble
than
those
with
lower
la\ce
energies?
 If
La\ce
energy
is
more,
Enthalpy
 ΔH1
is
more.
Means,
amount
of
 energy
required
to
separate
solute
 par5cles
is
more..
 ENDOTHERMIC
reac5on,
substances
 are
not
very
soluble
unless
you
give
 energy
(Temp)
to
the
solu5on
 13.35)
 Calculate
 the
 mass
 percentage
 of
 Na2SO4
 in
 a
 solu5on
 containing
 10.6g
 Na2SO4
 in
 483g
 water
 (b)
 An
 ore
 contains
 2.86g
 of
silver
per
ton
of
ore.
What
is
the
concentra5on
of
silver
in
ppm?
 13.35)
 Calculate
 the
 mass
 percentage
 of
 Na2SO4
 in
 a
 solu5on
 containing
 10.6g
 Na2SO4
 in
 483g
 water
 (b)
 An
 ore
 contains
 2.86g
 of
silver
per
ton
of
ore.
What
is
the
concentra5on
of
silver
in
ppm?
 (a)  Mass%
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
100/
total
mass
of
the
solute
 





Mass%=
(10.6
X
100)/
(10.6+483)
=
1060/493.6
=
2.15%

 13.35)
 Calculate
 the
 mass
 percentage
 of
 Na2SO4
 in
 a
 solu5on
 containing
 10.6g
 Na2SO4
 in
 483g
 water
 (b)
 An
 ore
 contains
 2.86g
 of
silver
per
ton
of
ore.
What
is
the
concentra5on
of
silver
in
ppm?
 (a)  Mass%
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
100/
total
mass
of
the
solute
 





Mass%=
(10.6
X
100)/
(10.6+483)
=
1060/493.6
=
2.15%

 (b)
ppm
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
106/
total
mass
of
the
solu5on
 





total
mass
of
the
solu5on
=
1
ton
 




















































=
2000lbs
 




 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
=
2000X
453.6g
 ppm
=
2.86X106/
2000X453.6
=
3.15
ppm

 13.36)
 (a)
 what
 mass
 percentage
 of
 Iodine
 (I2)
 in
 a
 solu5on
 contains
 0.035mol
 I2
 in
 115g
 of
 CCl4?
 (b)
 Seawater
 contains
 0.0079g
 Sr2+
 per
 kilogram
 of
 water.
 What
 is
 the
 concentra5on
 of
 Sr2+
measured
in
ppm?
 13.36)
 (a)
 what
 mass
 percentage
 of
 Iodine
 (I2)
 in
 a
 solu5on
 contains
 0.035mol
 I2
 in
 115g
 of
 CCl4?
 (b)
 Seawater
 contains
 0.0079g
 Sr2+
 per
 kilogram
 of
 water.
 What
 is
 the
 concentra5on
 of
 Sr2+
measured
in
ppm?
 (a)  Mass%
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
100/
total
mass
of
the
solute
 





Mass
of
the
solute=
0.035
mol
I2
=
0.035X
254
=
8.9g
of
I2
 





Mass
%
=
8.9X100/(8.9+115)
=
7.2%
I2
 13.36)
 (a)
 what
 mass
 percentage
 of
 Iodine
 (I2)
 in
 a
 solu5on
 contains
 0.035mol
 I2
 in
 115g
 of
 CCl4?
 (b)
 Seawater
 contains
 0.0079g
 Sr2+
 per
 kilogram
 of
 water.
 What
 is
 the
 concentra5on
 of
 Sr2+
measured
in
ppm?
 (a)  Mass%
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
100/
total
mass
of
the
solute
 





Mass
of
the
solute=
0.035
mol
I2
=
0.035X
254
=
8.9g
of
I2
 





Mass
%
=
8.9X100/(8.9+115)
=
7.2%
I2
 (b)
ppm
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
106/
total
mass
of
the
solu5on
 




ppm
=
0.0079X106/
1000
=
7.9
ppm

 13.38)
 A
 solu5on
 containing
 25.5g
 of
 phenol
 (C6H5OH)
 in
 425g
 ethanol
 (C2H5OH).
 Calculate
 (a)
 mole
 frac5on
 of
 phenol
 (b)
 mass
 %
 of
phenol
(c)
molality
of
Phenol?
 13.38)
 A
 solu5on
 containing
 25.5g
 of
 phenol
 (C6H5OH)
 in
 425g
 ethanol
 (C2H5OH).
 Calculate
 (a)
 mole
 frac5on
 of
 phenol
 (b)
 mass
 %
 of
phenol
(c)
molality
of
Phenol?
 (a)  Moles
of
Phenol=
wt/Mwt
=
25.5/
94.1
=
0.271
mol
 





Moles
of
Ethanol=
wt/Mwt=
425/
46
=
9.23
mol
 





Mole
frac5on
of
Phenol
=
moles
of
phenol/
total
number
of
moles
 
















































=
0.271/(9.23+0.271)=
0.0285
 13.38)
 A
 solu5on
 containing
 25.5g
 of
 phenol
 (C6H5OH)
 in
 425g
 ethanol
 (C2H5OH).
 Calculate
 (a)
 mole
 frac5on
 of
 phenol
 (b)
 mass
 %
 of
phenol
(c)
molality
of
Phenol?
 (a)  Moles
of
Phenol=
wt/Mwt
=
25.5/
94.1
=
0.271
mol
 





Moles
of
Ethanol=
wt/Mwt=
425/
46
=
9.23
mol
 





Mole
frac5on
of
Phenol
=
moles
of
phenol/
total
number
of
moles
 
















































=
0.271/(9.23+0.271)=
0.0285
 (b)
Mass%
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
100/
total
mass
of
the
solute
 





Mass
%
=
25.5X100/(25.5+425)
=
5.7%

 13.38)
 A
 solu5on
 containing
 25.5g
 of
 phenol
 (C6H5OH)
 in
 425g
 ethanol
 (C2H5OH).
 Calculate
 (a)
 mole
 frac5on
 of
 phenol
 (b)
 mass
 %
 of
phenol
(c)
molality
of
Phenol?
 (a)  Moles
of
Phenol=
wt/Mwt
=
25.5/
94.1
=
0.271
mol
 





Moles
of
Ethanol=
wt/Mwt=
425/
46
=
9.23
mol
 





Mole
frac5on
of
Phenol
=
moles
of
phenol/
total
number
of
moles
 
















































=
0.271/(9.23+0.271)=
0.0285
 (b)
Mass%
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
100/
total
mass
of
the
solute
 





Mass
%
=
25.5X100/(25.5+425)
=
5.7%

 (c)
Molality
of
phenol
=
Moles
of
the
solute
/mass
of
the
solvent
in
kg
 





Mass
%
=
0.271/0.425
=
0.64
m
phenol
 13.44)
Ascorbic
acid
(Vitamin
C,
C6H8O6)
is
a
water
soluble
vitamin.
A
 solu5on
containing
80.5g
of
ascorbic
acid
dissolved
in
210g
of
water
 has
 a
 density
 of
 1.22g/mL
 at
 55oC.
 Calculate
 (a)
 mass%
 (b)
 mole
 frac5on
(c)
molality
(d)
molarity
of
ascorbic
acid
in
this
solu5on?
 13.44)
Ascorbic
acid
(Vitamin
C,
C6H8O6)
is
a
water
soluble
vitamin.
A
 solu5on
containing
80.5g
of
ascorbic
acid
dissolved
in
210g
of
water
 has
 a
 density
 of
 1.22g/mL
 at
 55oC.
 Calculate
 (a)
 mass%
 (b)
 mole
 frac5on
(c)
molality
(d)
molarity
of
ascorbic
acid
in
this
solu5on?
 (a)
Mass%
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
100/
total
mass
of
the
solute
 





Mass
%
=
80.5X100/(80.5+210)
=
27.7%

 13.44)
Ascorbic
acid
(Vitamin
C,
C6H8O6)
is
a
water
soluble
vitamin.
A
 solu5on
containing
80.5g
of
ascorbic
acid
dissolved
in
210g
of
water
 has
 a
 density
 of
 1.22g/mL
 at
 55oC.
 Calculate
 (a)
 mass%
 (b)
 mole
 frac5on
(c)
molality
(d)
molarity
of
ascorbic
acid
in
this
solu5on?
 (a)
Mass%
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
100/
total
mass
of
the
solute
 





Mass
%
=
80.5X100/(80.5+210)
=
27.7%

 (b)
Moles
of
Vit
C
=
80.5/176
=
0.457
moles
 
Moles
of
H2O
=
210/18
=
11.7
moles
 
Moles
frac5on
=
0.457/(0.457+11.7)
=
0.0377
 13.44)
Ascorbic
acid
(Vitamin
C,
C6H8O6)
is
a
water
soluble
vitamin.
A
 solu5on
containing
80.5g
of
ascorbic
acid
dissolved
in
210g
of
water
 has
 a
 density
 of
 1.22g/mL
 at
 55oC.
 Calculate
 (a)
 mass%
 (b)
 mole
 frac5on
(c)
molality
(d)
molarity
ofascorbic
acid
in
this
solu5on?
 (a)
Mass%
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
100/
total
mass
of
the
solute
 





Mass
%
=
80.5X100/(80.5+210)
=
27.7%

 (b)
Moles
of
Vit
C
=
80.5/176
=
0.457
moles
 
Moles
of
H2O
=
210/18
=
11.7
moles
 
Moles
frac5on
=
0.457/(0.457+11.7)
=
0.0377
 (c)
Molality
=
moles/wt
of
solu5on
in
kg
=
0.457/0.210
=
2.18m
 13.44)
Ascorbic
acid
(Vitamin
C,
C6H8O6)
is
a
water
soluble
vitamin.
A
 solu5on
containing
80.5g
of
ascorbic
acid
dissolved
in
210g
of
water
 has
 a
 density
 of
 1.22g/mL
 at
 55oC.
 Calculate
 (a)
 mass%
 (b)
 mole
 frac5on
(c)
molality
(d)
molarity
of
ascorbic
acid
in
this
solu5on?
 (a)
Mass%
=
Mass
of
the
solute
X
100/
total
mass
of
the
solute
 





Mass
%
=
80.5X100/(80.5+210)
=
27.7%

 (b)
Moles
of
Vit
C
=
80.5/176
=
0.457
moles
 
Moles
of
H2O
=
210/18
=
11.7
moles
 
Moles
frac5on
=
0.457/(0.457+11.7)
=
0.0377
 (c)
Molality
=
moles/wt
of
solu5on
in
kg
=
0.457/0.210
=
2.18m
 (d)
Molarity
=
moles/vol
solu5on
in
L
 





V=
m/d
=
(80.5+210)/1.22
=
238mL
=
0.238L
 
 
Molarity
=
0.457/0.238
=
1.92M
 ...
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