Review Session-6

Review Session-6 - REVIEW
SESSION‐
6
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Unformatted text preview: REVIEW
SESSION‐
6
 Chemical
Kine6cs
 14.3)
You
perform
a
series
of
experiments
for
the
reac7on
AB+C
and
find
 that
the
rate
law:
Rate=k[A]x.
Determine
the
value
of
x
in
each
of
the
following
 cases:
(a)
There
is
no
rate

change
when
[A]
is
tripled
(b)
The
rate
increases
by
 a
factor
of
9
when
[A]
is
tripled
(c)
When
[A]
is
doubled,
the
rate
increases
by
a
 factor
of
8

 14.3)
You
perform
a
series
of
experiments
for
the
reac7on
AB+C
and
find
 that
the
rate
law:
Rate=k[A]x.
Determine
the
value
of
x
in
each
of
the
following
 cases:
(a)
There
is
no
rate

change
when
[A]
is
tripled
(b)
The
rate
increases
by
 a
factor
of
9
when
[A]
is
tripled
(c)
When
[A]
is
doubled,
the
rate
increases
by
a
 factor
of
8

 (a)
No
change
in
rate,
x=0,
Rate
=
k
[A]0

zero
order
reac7on.


 14.3)
You
perform
a
series
of
experiments
for
the
reac7on
AB+C
and
find
 that
the
rate
law:
Rate=k[A]x.
Determine
the
value
of
x
in
each
of
the
following
 cases:
(a)
There
is
no
rate

change
when
[A]
is
tripled
(b)
The
rate
increases
by
 a
factor
of
9
when
[A]
is
tripled
(c)
When
[A]
is
doubled,
the
rate
increases
by
a
 factor
of
8

 (a)
No
change
in
rate,
x=0,
Rate
=
k
[A]
0

zero
order
reac7on
in
A.


 (b)
Rate

increases
by
9
7mes
when
[A]
is
tripled

2nd
order
in
A

 14.3)
You
perform
a
series
of
experiments
for
the
reac7on
AB+C
and
find
 that
the
rate
law:
Rate=k[A]x.
Determine
the
value
of
x
in
each
of
the
following
 cases:
(a)
There
is
no
rate

change
when
[A]
is
tripled
(b)
The
rate
increases
by
 a
factor
of
9
when
[A]
is
tripled
(c)
When
[A]
is
doubled,
the
rate
increases
by
a
 factor
of
8

 (a)
No
change
in
rate,
x=0,
Rate
=
k
[A]
0

zero
order
reac7on
in
A.


 (b)
Rate

increases
by
9
7mes
when
[A]
is
tripled

2nd
order
in
A

 (c)
Rate

increases
by
8
7mes
when
[A]
is
doubled

3rd
order
in
A

 14.16)
A
flask
charged
with
0.1
mol
of
A
and
allowed
to
react
to
form
B
 according
to
the
hypothe7cal
gas
phase
reac7on
A(g)B(g).
The
following
 data
are
collected:
(a)
calculate
the
number
of
B
at
each
7me
in
the
table
(b)
 Calculate
the
average
disappearance
of
A
for
each
40
sec
7me
interval,
in
units
 of
mol/s.
 Time
 Moles
of
A
 0
 0.1
 40
 0.067
 80
 0.045
 120
 0.030
 160
 0.020
 14.16)
A
flask
charged
with
0.1
mol
of
A
and
allowed
to
react
to
form
B
 according
to
the
hypothe7cal
gas
phase
reac7on
A(g)B(g).
The
following
 data
are
collected:
(a)
calculate
the
number
of
B
at
each
7me
in
the
table
(b)
 Calculate
the
average
disappearance
of
A
for
each
40
sec
7me
interval,
in
units
 of
mol/s.
 Time
 Moles
of
A
 Moles
of
B
 0
 0.1
 0
 40
 0.067
 0.033
 80
 0.045
 0.055
 120
 0.030
 0.070
 160
 0.020
 0.080
 14.16)
A
flask
charged
with
0.1
mol
of
A
and
allowed
to
react
to
form
B
 according
to
the
hypothe7cal
gas
phase
reac7on
A(g)B(g).
The
following
 data
are
collected:
(a)
calculate
the
number
of
B
at
each
7me
in
the
table
(b)
 Calculate
the
average
disappearance
of
A
for
each
40
sec
7me
interval,
in
units
 of
mol/s.
 Moles
of
B
 ΔMoles
of
A
 Time
 Moles
of
A
 0
 0.1
 0
 ‐
 40
 0.067
 0.033
 ‐0.033
 80
 0.045
 0.055
 ‐0.022
 120
 0.030
 0.070
 ‐0.015
 160
 0.020
 0.080
 ‐0.010
 14.16)
A
flask
charged
with
0.1
mol
of
A
and
allowed
to
react
to
form
B
 according
to
the
hypothe7cal
gas
phase
reac7on
A(g)B(g).
The
following
 data
are
collected:
(a)
calculate
the
number
of
B
at
each
7me
in
the
table
(b)
 Calculate
the
average
disappearance
of
A
for
each
40
sec
7me
interval,
in
units
 of
mol/s.
 Moles
of
B
 ΔMoles
of
A
 Rate
(‐ΔMoles
of
A/s)
 Time
 Moles
of
A
 0
 0.1
 0
 ‐
 ‐
 40
 0.067
 0.033
 ‐0.033
 8.3X10‐4
 80
 0.045
 0.055
 ‐0.022
 5.5X10‐4
 120
 0.030
 0.070
 ‐0.015
 3.8X10‐4
 160
 0.020
 0.080
 ‐0.010
 2.5X10‐4
 14.20)
For
each
of
the
following
gas
phase
reac7ons,
write
the
rate
expression
 in
terms
of
the
appearance
of
product
or
disappearance
of
reactant?
 (A)
2H2O(g)
2H2(g)+
O2(g)
 (B)
2SO2(g)+O2(g)

2SO3(g)
 (C)
2NO(g)+2H2(g)

N2(g)+2H2O
(g)
 14.20)
For
each
of
the
following
gas
phase
reac7ons,
write
the
rate
expression
 in
terms
of
the
appearance
of
product
or
disappearance
of
reactant?
 (A)
2H2O(g)
2H2(g)+
O2(g)
 Rate
=
‐Δ[H2O]/2Δt
=
Δ [H2]/2Δt
=
Δ [O2]/Δt
 (B)
2SO2(g)+O2(g)

2SO3(g)
 Rate
=
‐Δ[SO2]/2Δt
=
‐Δ [O2]/Δt
=
Δ [SO3]/2Δt
 (C)
2NO(g)+2H2(g)

N2(g)+2H2O
(g)
 Rate
=
‐Δ[NO]/2Δt
=
‐Δ [H2]/2Δt
=
Δ [N2]/Δt=
Δ [H2O]/2Δt

 14.21)
Consider
the
combus7on
of
hydrogen
gas:
2H2+O22H2O.
If
hydrogen
 is
burning
at
the
rate
of
0.85
mol/s,
what
is
the
rate
of
consump7on
of
oxygen?
 What
is
the
rate
of
forma7on
of
water
vapor?
 Rate
=
Δ[H2O]/2Δt
=
‐Δ [H2]/2Δt
=
‐Δ[O2]/Δt
 14.21)
Consider
the
combus7on
of
hydrogen
gas:
2H2+O22H2O.
If
hydrogen
 is
burning
at
the
rate
of
0.85
mol/s,
what
is
the
rate
of
consump7on
of
oxygen?
 What
is
the
rate
of
forma7on
of
water
vapor?
 Rate
=
Δ[H2O]/2Δt
=
‐Δ [H2]/2Δt
=
‐Δ[O2]/Δt
 Rate
of
burning
of
H2,
‐Δ[H2]
=
0.85
mol/s
 Consump7on
of
Oxygen
=
‐Δ[O2]/Δt
=
‐Δ [H2]/2Δt

=
0.85/2
=
0.425
mol/s
 14.21)
Consider
the
combus7on
of
hydrogen
gas:
2H2+O22H2O.
If
hydrogen
 is
burning
at
the
rate
of
0.85
mol/s,
what
is
the
rate
of
consump7on
of
oxygen?
 What
is
the
rate
of
forma7on
of
water
vapor?
 Rate
=
Δ[H2O]/2Δt
=
‐Δ [H2]/2Δt
=
‐Δ[O2]/Δt
 Rate
of
burning
of
H2,
‐Δ[H2]
=
0.85
mol/s
 Consump7on
of
Oxygen
=
‐Δ[O2]/Δt
=
‐Δ [H2]/2Δt

=
0.85/2
=
0.425
mol/s
 Rate
of
forma7on
of
water
=
Δ[H2O]/2Δt
=
‐Δ [H2]/2Δt
=
0.85
mol/s.
 14.21)(b)
The
reac7on
2NO+Cl22NOCl
is
carried
out
in
a
closed
vessel.
If
 par7al
pressure
of
NO
is
decreasing
at
the
rate
of
23
torr/min,
what
is
the
rate
 of
change
of
total
pressure
of
the
vessel?
 Rate
=
‐ΔPNO/2Δt
=
‐Δ PCl2/Δt
=
ΔPNOCl/Δt
 ‐ΔPNO/Δt
=
‐23
torr/min
 ΔPCl2/Δt
=
‐23/2
=
‐12
torr/min
 
ΔPNOCl/Δt
=
+23
torr/min
 ΔPT/Δt
=
‐23‐12+23
=
‐12
torr/min
 14.24)Consider
a
hypothe7cal
reac7on
between
A,
B
and
C
that
is
first
order
in
 A,
zero
order
in
B
and
second
order
in
C.
 (a)
Write
rate
law
for
the
reac7on
 (b)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[A]
is
doubled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 (c)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[B]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 (d)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[c]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 (d)
By
what
factor
does
the
rate
change
when
the
concentra7ons
of
all
 reactants
tripled?
 14.24)Consider
a
hypothe7cal
reac7on
between
A,
B
and
C
that
is
first
order
in
 A,
zero
order
in
B
and
second
order
in
C.
 (a)
Write
rate
law
for
the
reac7on
 Rate
=
k[A][C]2
 (b)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[A]
is
doubled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 (c)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[B]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 (d)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[c]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 (d)
By
what
factor
does
the
rate
change
when
the
concentra7ons
of
all
 reactants
tripled?
 14.24)Consider
a
hypothe7cal
reac7on
between
A,
B
and
C
that
is
first
order
in
 A,
zero
order
in
B
and
second
order
in
C.
 (a)
Write
rate
law
for
the
reac7on
 Rate
=
k[A][C]2
 (b)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[A]
is
doubled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 Rate
doubles
 (c)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[B]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 (d)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[c]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 (d)
By
what
factor
does
the
rate
change
when
the
concentra7ons
of
all
 reactants
tripled?
 14.24)Consider
a
hypothe7cal
reac7on
between
A,
B
and
C
that
is
first
order
in
 A,
zero
order
in
B
and
second
order
in
C.
 (a)
Write
rate
law
for
the
reac7on
 Rate
=
k[A][C]2
 (b)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[A]
is
doubled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 Rate
doubles
 (c)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[B]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 Rate:
No
Change
 (d)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[c]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 (d)
By
what
factor
does
the
rate
change
when
the
concentra7ons
of
all
 reactants
tripled?
 14.24)Consider
a
hypothe7cal
reac7on
between
A,
B
and
C
that
is
first
order
in
 A,
zero
order
in
B
and
second
order
in
C.
 (a)
Write
rate
law
for
the
reac7on
 Rate
=
k[A][C]2
 (b)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[A]
is
doubled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 Rate
doubles
 (c)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[B]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 Rate:
No
Change
 (d)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[c]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 Rate
increases
by
9
7mes
 (d)
By
what
factor
does
the
rate
change
when
the
concentra7ons
of
all
 reactants
tripled?
 14.24)Consider
a
hypothe7cal
reac7on
between
A,
B
and
C
that
is
first
order
in
 A,
zero
order
in
B
and
second
order
in
C.
 (a)
Write
rate
law
for
the
reac7on
 Rate
=
k[A][C]2
 (b)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[A]
is
doubled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 Rate
doubles
 (c)
How
doesrate
law
changes
when
[B]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 Rate:
No
Change
 (d)
How
does
rate
law
changes
when
[c]
is
tripled
and
other
reactants
held
 constant?

 Rate
increases
by
9
7mes
 (d)
By
what
factor
does
the
rate
change
when
the
concentra7ons
of
all
 reactants
tripled?
 Rate
increases
by
27
7mes
 14.28)
Reac7on
is
in
ethylalcohol
at
330K:
C2H5Br
(alc)+
OH‐
(alc)C2H5OH
(l) +Br‐(alc)
is
first
order
in
each
ethylbromide
and
hydroxide
ion.
When
[C2H5Br]
is
 0.0477M
and
[OH]‐
is
0.1M,
the
rate
of
disappearance
of
ethylbromide
is
 1.7X10‐7M/s.
 (a)
What
is
the
value
of
rate
constant?
 (b)
What
are
the
units
of
rate
constant?
 (c)
How
would
the
rate
of
disappearance
of
ethylbromide
change
if
the
 solu7on
diluted
by
adding
an
equal
volume
of
ethylalcohol
solu7on?
 14.28)
Reac7on
is
in
ethylalcohol
at
330K:
C2H5Br
(alc)+
OH‐
(alc)C2H5OH
(l) +Br‐(alc)
is
first
order
in
each
ethylbromide
and
hydroxide
ion.
When
[C2H5Br]
is
 0.0477M
and
[OH]‐
is
0.1M,
the
rate
of
disappearance
of
ethylbromide
is
 1.7X10‐7M/s.
 (a)
What
is
the
value
of
rate
constant?
 ‐Δ[C2H5Br]/Δt=
Rate
=k[C2H5Br][OH]‐
 Rate
=
1.7X10‐7
M/s
 k=
rate/[C2H5Br][OH]‐
=

1.7X10‐7/(0.0477)(0.1)
=
3.6X10‐5
 (b)
What
are
the
units
of
rate
constant?
 (c)
How
would
the
rate
of
disappearance
of
ethylbromide
change
if
the
 solu7on
diluted
by
adding
an
equal
volume
of
ethylalcohol
solu7on?
 14.28)
Reac7on
is
in
ethylalcohol
at
330K:
C2H5Br
(alc)+
OH‐
(alc)C2H5OH
(l) +Br‐(alc)
is
first
order
in
each
ethylbromide
and
hydroxide
ion.
When
[C2H5Br]
is
 0.0477M
and
[OH]‐
is
0.1M,
the
rate
of
disappearance
of
ethylbromide
is
 1.7X10‐7M/s.
 (a)
What
is
the
value
of
rate
constant?
 ‐Δ[C2H5Br]/Δt=
Rate
=k[C2H5Br][OH]‐
 Rate
=
1.7X10‐7
M/s
 k=
rate/[C2H5Br][OH]‐
=

1.7X10‐7/(0.0477)(0.1)
=
3.6X10‐5
 (b)
What
are
the
units
of
rate
constant?
 k=
(M/s)/
(M)(M)
=
M‐1s‐1
 (c)
How
would
the
rate
of
disappearance
of
ethylbromide
change
if
the
 solu7on
diluted
by
adding
an
equal
volume
of
ethylalcohol
solu7on?
 14.28)
Reac7on
is
in
ethylalcohol
at
330K:
C2H5Br
(alc)+
OH‐
(alc)C2H5OH
(l) +Br‐(alc)
is
first
order
in
each
ethylbromide
and
hydroxide
ion.
When
[C2H5Br]
is
 0.0477M
and
[OH]‐
is
0.1M,
the
rate
of
disappearance
of
ethylbromide
is
 1.7X10‐7M/s.
 (a)
What
is
the
value
of
rate
constant?
 ‐Δ[C2H5Br]/Δt=
Rate
=k[C2H5Br][OH]‐
 Rate
=
1.7X10‐7
M/s
 k=
rate/[C2H5Br][OH]‐
=

1.7X10‐7/(0.0477)(0.1)
=
3.6X10‐5
 (b)
What
are
the
units
of
rate
constant?
 k=
(M/s)/
(M)(M)
=
M‐1s‐1
 (c)
How
would
the
rate
of
disappearance
of
ethylbromide
change
if
the
 solu7on
diluted
by
adding
an
equal
volume
of
ethylalcohol
solu7on?
 Adding
equal
volume
of
ethylalcohol
reduces
the
concentra7on
of
 reactants
by
a
factor
of
two

rate(R')
=
(1/2)
(1/2)(R)
=
1/4R
 New
rate
(R')
will
be
¼
th
of
orizinal
rate
(R).

 Using
the
table
14.2,
(a)
determine
the
rate
law,
(b)
rate
constant
and
 (c)
rate
of
the
reac7on
when
the
concentra7ons
of
both
reactants
 raised
to
[0.1M]
 Using
the
table
14.2,
(a)
determine
the
rate
law,
(b)
rate
constant
and
 (c)
rate
of
the
reac7on
when
the
concentra7ons
of
both
reactants
 raised
to
[0.1M]
 (a)
 Rate = k [ NH 4 + ][ NO2− ] € Using
the
table
14.2,
(a)
determine
the
rate
law,
(b)
rate
constant
and
 (c)
rate
of
the
reac7on
when
the
concentra7ons
of
both
reactants
 raised
to
[0.1M]
 (a)
 Rate = k [ NH 4 + ][ NO2− ] € (b)
From
the
table,
Ini7al
rate
=
5.4
X
10‐7M/s
 [NH4]+
=
0.0100
M,
[NO2]‐
=
0.200
M
 
5.4X10‐7
M/s
 k

=

 =
2.7
X
10‐4
M‐1s‐1
 [0.01
M]
[0.20M]
 Using
the
table
14.2,
(a)
determine
the
rate
law,
(b)
rate
constant
and
 (c)
rate
of
the
reac7on
when
the
concentra7ons
of
both
reactants
 raised
to
[0.1M]
 (a)
 Rate = k [ NH 4 + ][ NO2− ] € (b)
From
the
table,
Ini7al
rate
=
5.4
X
10‐7M/s
 [NH4]+
=
0.0100
M,
[NO2]‐
=
0.200
M
 
5.4X10‐7
M/s
 k

=

 =
2.7
X
10‐4
M‐1s‐1
 [0.01
M]
[0.20M]
 (c)
Rate
=
[2.7
X
10‐4M‐1s‐1][0.10M]
[0.10M]
=
2.7
X
10‐6
M/s


 14.36)
(a)
For
a
second
order
reac7on,
what
quan7ty,
when
graphed
vs
7me,
 will
yield
a
straight
line?
(b)
how
do
the
half
lives
of
fitst
and
second
order
 reac7ons
differ?
 14.36)
(a)
For
a
second
order
reac7on,
what
quan7ty,
when
graphed
vs
7me,
 will
yield
a
straight
line?
(b)
how
do
the
half
lives
of
fitst
and
second
order
 reac7ons
differ?
 (a)  A
graph
of
1/[A]
Vs
7me
yields
a
straight
line
for
second
order
reac7on
 (b)  Half
life
of
a
first
order
reac7on
independent
of
ini7al
concentra7on
of
 reactant
[A]0,
t½
=
0.693/k
 (c)  Half
life
of
a
second
order
reac7on
dependent
of
ini7al
concentra7on
of
 reactant
[A]0,
t½
=
1/k[A]0
 14.38)
Molecular
iodine
[I2(g)],
dissociates
into
iodine
atoms
at
625K
with
a
 first
order
rate
constant
of
0.271s‐1.
(a)
What
is
the
half
life
of
this
reac7on?
 (b)
If
you
start
with
0.05M
of
I2
at
this
temperature,
how
much
will
remain
 aler
5.12s
assuming
that
the
iodine
atoms
do
not
recombine
to
form
I2?
 14.38)
Molecular
iodine
[I2(g)],
dissociates
into
iodine
atoms
at
625K
with
a
 first
order
rate
constant
of
0.271s‐1.
(a)
What
is
the
half
life
of
this
reac7on?
 (b)
If
you
start
with
0.05M
of
I2
at
this
temperature,
how
much
will
remain
 aler
5.12s
assuming
that
the
iodine
atoms
do
not
recombine
to
form
I2?
 (a)
For
first
order
reac7on:
t
½
=
0.693/k
=
0.693/0.271s‐1=
2.56
s
 14.38)
Molecular
iodine
[I2(g)],
dissociates
into
iodine
atoms
at
625K
with
a
 first
order
rate
constant
of
0.271s‐1.
(a)
What
is
the
half
life
of
this
reac7on?
 (b)
If
you
start
with
0.05M
of
I2
at
this
temperature,
how
much
will
remain
 aler
5.12s
assuming
that
the
iodine
atoms
do
not
recombine
to
form
I2?
 (a)
For
first
order
reac7on:
t
½
=
0.693/k
=
0.693/0.271s‐1=
2.56
s
 (b)
For
first
order
reac7on:
ln[A]t=
‐kt
+
ln[A]0
 [A]0
=
0.05,
k=0.271,
t=
5.12
 ln[I2]t
=
‐(0.271X
5.12)+
ln(0.05)
 



=
‐1.387
‐2.995
=
‐4.39

 [I2]t
=
exp(‐4.39)
=
0.0125M
 14.38)
Molecular
iodine
[I2(g)],
dissociates
into
iodine
atoms
at
625K
with
a
 first
order
rate
constant
of
0.271s‐1.
(a)
What
is
the
half
life
of
this
reac7on?
 (b)
If
you
start
with
0.05M
of
I2
at
this
temperature,
how
much
will
remain
 aler
5.12s
assuming
that
the
iodine
atoms
do
not
recombine
to
form
I2?
 (a)
For
first
order
reac7on:
t
½
=
0.693/k
=
0.693/0.271s‐1=
2.56
s
 (b)
For
first
order
reac7on:
ln[A]t=
‐kt
+
ln[A]0
 [A]0
=
0.05,
k=0.271,
t=
5.12
 ln[I2]t
=
‐(0.271X
5.12)+
ln(0.05)
 



=
‐1.387
‐2.995
=
‐4.39

 [I2]t
=
exp(‐4.39)
=
0.0125M
 Another
way:
2.56sec
is
the
half
life
for
this
reac7on
 2.56sec
 2.56sec
 0.05M
of
I2
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐>
0.025M
of
I2
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐>
0.0125M
of
I2
 (Total:
5.12sec)
 ...
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