070201 Chapters 1-2

070201 Chapters 1-2 - 2/1 Chapters 1-2 I. Habituation...

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2/1 Chapters 1-2 I. Habituation (covered briefly in text in ch 1) 1- occurs in all animals from protozoa to man. 2- plays a central role in the organism's adaptive capacity. 3- definition—"a (1) stimulus-specific (2) response decremen t resulting from (3) repeated exposures to the (4) eliciting stimulus (S*). 4- is non-associative learning (but still is a relatively permanent change in behavior) II. Characteristics of habituation 1.) Given that a particular stimulus elicits a response, repeated applications of the same stimulus result in decreased response ( habituation ). 2.) If the eliciting stimulus is withheld, the response tends to recover with the passage of time (spontaneous recovery). 3.) If repeated series of habituation training and spontaneous recovery are given, habituation becomes successively more rapid (i.e., savings/relatively permanent ). (Trial-1 response level at outset of any new session may be high but it will drop off rapidly after that.) 4.) Other things being equal, the more rapid the frequency of stimulation, the more rapid and/or more pronounced is habituation. 5.) The weaker the initial stimulus, the more rapid and/or more pronounced is habituation. Very strong stimuli may yield no habituation. III. Evolutionary account of habituation emphasizes its adaptive or survival value . (All learning is adaptive. This account describes what makes hab adaptive; that is, what hab "buys" you.) For evolutionary psychologists, habituation is a means by which organisms eliminate nonessential
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070201 Chapters 1-2 - 2/1 Chapters 1-2 I. Habituation...

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